After this, however, Assyria once more fell into a state of decay, from which it was delivered by the successful revolt of a military officer Pulu (Pul), who put an end to the old line of kings and took the name of Tiglath-pileser IV (745-727 BC). 722 ( 2 Kings 17:1-6 2 Kings 17:24 ; 2 Kings 18:7 2 Kings 18:9 ). These objects were steadily kept in view throughout the reigns of Tiglath-pileser and his successors. 2 Kings 19:37), was as distinguished a general and administrator as his father had been the reverse. Its capital city Nineveh was built by Nimrod, according to the Bible (Genesis 10:11). When references are found in other StudyLight.org reference tools, a hyperlink will appear in the right-hand column, allowing you to move to that resource and expand your Bible study. Bible verses related to Assyria from the King James Version (KJV) by Relevance - Sort By Book Order Isaiah 36:1-22 - Now it came to pass in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah, [that] Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the defenced cities of Judah, and took them. 2Kings 17:3 - 4Against him came up Shalmaneser king of Assyria: and Hoshea became his servant, and gave him presents. The Assyrians of the Bible were part of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Assyrians reckoned time by means of limmi, certain officials appointed every New Year's day, after whom their year of office was named. In 705 BC Sargon was murdered, and succeeded by his son \SENNACHERIB\ (which see). They were a military "people, the "Romans of the East." The furniture even of the palace was scanty, consisting mainly of couches, chairs, stools, tables, rugs and curtains. Then under Tandamane, Tirhakah's successor, Egypt revolted again. Question: "Who was Sennacherib in the Bible?" Originally, it is true, his feminine counterpart, Asirtu, the In 728 BC Tiglath-pileser was solemnly crowned at Babylon and the following year he died. "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". In one of his campaigns he made his way to the Mediterranean, and received presents from the king of Egypt, which included a crocodile. He corresponded with the Egyptian Pharaoh and married his daughter to the Bah king, thereby providing for himself a pretext for interfering in the affairs of Babylonia. the name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. The Hittites had been rendered powerless by an invasion of the northern barbarians, and the Assyrian king was thus left free to crush Babylonia. It was overthrown by the Babylonians and Medes about 600 B. C., after it had been in existence for some 1,200 years. In 842 BC Shalmaneser penetrated to Damascus where Hazael, the successor of Ben-hadad, who had already been defeated in the open field, was closely besieged. Resources » Easton's Bible Dictionary » A » Assyria. And Ahaz took the silver and gold that was found in the house of the LORD, and in the treasures of the king's house, and sent it for a present to the king of Assyria. Strictly speaking, Assyria was a small district bounded on the N. and E. by the mountains of Armenia and Kurdistan, on … The Assyrians, whose height of power ran from 884 to 612 B.C., are considered the first world power in human history. Clothes, curtains and rugs, on the other hand, were richly dyed and embroidered, and were manufactured from wool and flax, and (in the age of the Second Empire) from cotton. The terra-cotta figures which can be assigned to the Assyrian period are poor. That Asshur is reasoning, is evident from the signification of Asshur or Assyria in the Word, where it is constantly taken for the things which pertain to reason, in both senses; namely, for what is of reason, and for reasonings. His campaign against Hezekiah of Judah in 701 BC was a failure; so, also, was his policy in Babylonia which was in a constant state of revolt against his rule, and which ended in his razing the sacred city of Babylon to the ground in 689 BC. And Menahem exacted the money of Israel, even of all the mighty men of wealth, of each man fifty shekels of silver, to give to the king of Assyria. Under Assur-etil-ilani, the son and successor of Assur-bani-pal, Calah was taken and sacked, and two reigns later, Sin-sar-iskun, the last king of Assyria, fell fighting against the Scythians (606 BC). Asur was originally Asir, "the leader" in war, who is accordingly depicted as a warrior-god armed with a bow and who in the age when solar worship became general in Babylonia was identified with the sun-god. The Assyrians were Semites ( Genesis 10:22 ), but in process of time non-Semite tribes mingled with the inhabitants. They conquered an area that comprises what is now Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon. Capital: Nineveh. Assyria , also called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East who lived in the Levant that existed as a state from perhaps as early as the 25th century BC (in the form of the Assur city-state ) until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC – spanning the periods of the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. The Assyrians "were Semites (Gen. 10:22), but in process of time non-Semite" tribes mingled with the inhabitants. See G. Rawlinson, Five Great Monarchies of the Eastern World, 1862-67; Perrot and Chipiez, Histoire de l'art dans l'antiquite, II, 1884; Maspero, Struggle of the Nations, and Passing of the Empires, 3 volumes, 1894-1900; Rogers, A History of Babylonia and Assyria, 1900; Johns, Assyrian Deeds and Documents, 1898; Schrader, KAT, English translation by Whitehouse, 1885; Pinches, The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records of Assyria and Babylonia, 1902. He also invaded Syria ( 2 Kings 17:5 ), but was deposed in favour of Sargon (q.v.) His chief campaigns were directed against Media. Its possession was disputed between Semitic Amurru or Nine years previously his troops had been called upon to suppress a revolt in Cilicia, where a battle was fought with the Greeks. Among the high officials at court were the rab-saki or "vizier," and the rab-sa-risi or "controller," the rabhcaric (\RAB-SARIS\ (which see)) of the Old Testament. Assyria ancient and proper lay east of the Tigris, between Armenia, Susiana, and Media, and appears to have comprehended the six provinces attributed to it by Ptolemy, … About 2500 BC the country was occupied by Babylonian Semites, who brought with them the religion, law, customs, script and Semitic language of Babylonia (Genesis 10:11,12, where we should read "He went forth to Asshur"; see At Assur he planted a botanical garden stocked with trees from the conquered provinces. \TIGLATH-PILESER\. The book Light From the Ancient Past calls Assyria “the ruthless fighting machine whose calculated frightfulness was the terror of its enemies.” The following is the way one Assyrian king, Ashurnasirpal II, boasted of his treatment of those who opposed him: Ahaz, the king of Judah, when engaged in a war against Israel and Syria, appealed for help to this Assyrian king by means of a present of gold and silver ( 2 Kings 16:8 ); who accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put Rezin to death, and besieged the city itself." We'll send you an email with steps on how to reset your password. Learn more about Assyria from the Easton’s Bible Dictionary. Assyria was a dependency of Babylonia and later of the Mitanni kingdom during most of the 2nd millennium bce.It emerged as an independent state in the 14th century bce, and in the subsequent period it became a major power in Mesopotamia, Armenia, and sometimes in northern Syria.Assyrian power declined after the death of Tukulti-Ninurta I (c. 1208 bce). For his history see Horses were imported from Cappadocia; ducks were kept, and mastiffs were employed in hunting. The foundation of Nineveh, Rehoboth-'Ir (Assyrian Rebit-Ali, "the suburbs of the city"), Calah and Resen (Assyrian Res- eni, "head of the spring") is ascribed to them. Assyria, a Greek name formed from Asshur ('ashshur; 'Assour; Assyrian Assur): The origin of the city (now Kala'at Shergat), which was built on the western bank of the Tigris between the Upper and Lower Zab, went back to pre-Sem times, and the meaning of the name was forgotten (see Genesis 2:14, where the Hiddekel or Tigris is said to flow on the eastern side of Asshur). This time the Assyrian punishment was merciless. The infantry were about ten times as numerous as the calvary, and under Sargon were divided into bowmen and spearmen, the bowmen again being subdivided into heavy-armed and light-armed, the latter being apparently of foreign origin. 740) Arpad, near Aleppo, after a siege of three years, and reduced Hamath. He directed his armies into Syria, which had by this time regained its independence, and took (B.C. By reason and rational things are properly meant things that are true; and by reasoning and reasonings, those which are false. Then came the turn of northern Arabia, where the rebel sheikhs were compelled to submit. III. In B.C. Assyria definition, an ancient empire in SW Asia: greatest extent from about 750 to 612 b.c. Some years after this the Assyrian king marched an army against Hazael, king of Damascus. Copyright © 2020, Bible Study Tools. Article Images Copyright © 2020 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. after a siege of three years, and so put an end to the kingdom of Israel, carrying the people away into captivity, B.C. The earliest known to us are Auspia and Kikia, who bear Mitannian names. He besieged and took that city. The definitions are the same as those for Asshur.. At one time a very mighty empire. From the reign of Tiglath-pileser IV onward, however, the autocracy was tempered by a centralized bureaucracy, and in the provinces a civil governor was appointed by the side of the military commander. had enormous impact on the Hebrew kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ASSYRIA, ASSHUR [SMITH] was a great and powerful country lying on the Tigris, (Genesis 2:14) the capital of which was Nineveh. According to Esar-haddon the kingdom was founded by Bel-bani son of Adasi, who first made himself independent; Hadad-nirari, however, ascribes its foundation to Zulili. 727 the Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under the leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan ( 2 Kings 20:12 ), who, after twelve years, was subdued by Sargon, who now reunited the kingdom, and ruled over a vast empire. Assyria (Asshur) Bible Meaning: A step. In the bas-reliefs discovered at Nineveh three periods of artistic progress may be traced. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, and became an independent and a conquering power, and shook off the yoke of its Babylonian masters. The army consisted of cavalry, infantry, bowmen and slingers, as well as of a corps of charioteers. The city which gave its name to the country and empire, even as it took its own name from the national god, was Ashur. of The image of Merodach was carried to Assur as a sign that the scepter had passed from Babylon to the parvenu Assyria. The beautiful ivory carvings found at Nineveh were probably the work of foreign artificers, but gems and seal cylinders were engraved by native artists in imitation of those of Babylonia, and the Babylonian art of painting and glazing tiles was also practiced. Just a few years later, in 701, they threatened to destroy Jerusalem. In course of time, however, differences grew up between the spoken language and the language of literature, which had incorporated many Summerian words, and retained grammatical terminations that the vernacular had lost, though these differences were never very great. Shalmaneser I (1300 BC), accordingly, devoted himself to crippling the Hittite power and cutting it off from communication with Babylonia. Tirhakah the Ethiopian who had headed its revolt was driven back to his own country, and for a time there was peace. In his later days, when too old to take the field himself, his armies were led by the turtannu or commander-in-chief, and a rebellion, headed by his son Assur-danin-pal (Sardanapalus) broke out at home, where Nineveh and Assur were jealous of the preference shown for Calah. Sculpture in the round, however, lagged far behind that in relief, and the statuary of Assyria is very inferior to that of Babylonia. 625), and Assyria fell according to the prophecies of ( Isaiah 10:5-19 ), ( Nahum 3:19 ), and ( Zephaniah 3:13 ), and the many separate kingdoms of which it was composed ceased to recognize the "great king" ( 2 Kings 18:19 ; Isaiah 36:4 ). And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea: for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt, and brought no present to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by year . Please enter your email address associated with your Salem All-Pass account, then click Continue. Name and Location. 1Chronicles 1:17The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech. Rich, who had first visited Mossul in 1811, examined the mounds opposite in 1820 and concluded that they represented the site of Nineveh. The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and … In the reign of Ahab, king of Israel, Shalmaneser II. This led to Ahab's casting off the yoke of Damascus and allying himself with Judah. The third period is that of Assur-bani-pal, when the overcrowding is avoided by once more leaving the background bare, while the animal and vegetable forms are distinguished by a certain softness, if not effeminacy of tone. Unlike Babylonia, Assyria abounded in stone; the brick buildings of Babylonia, accordingly, were replaced by stone, and the painted or tiled walls by sculptured slabs. His work was continued by Rassam (1851-54). At length, however, its power declined. His name became the basis for the term Assyria that references both the nation and the people living in the land. But in general it was hammered, and the scenes hammered in relief on the bronze gates discovered by Mr. Rassam at Balawat near Nineveh are among the best examples of ancient oriental metallurgy at present known. The road to the West was thus again secured for the merchants of Assyria. His son Hadad-nirari III (811-783 BC) was the next king, whose mother was Sammu-ramat (Semiramis). The other man named Asshur was a son of Shem, the eldest son of Noah (Genesis 10:22), and, on the Biblical stage, from him sprang the people called the Assyrians (אשורי), who lived in Assyria, which in the Bible is known simply as Asshur (אשור). Assyria (Assihrya) was a nation in northern Mesopotamia in Old Testament times that became a large empire during the period of the Israelite kings. As in Babylonia, land and houses were leased knd sold, money was lent at interest, and the leading firms employed numerous damgari or commercial agents. 745) the crown was seized by a military adventurer called Pul, who assumed the name of Tiglath-pileser III. In 1843-45 the Frenchman Botta disinterred the palace of Sargon at Khorsabad, 15 miles North of Nineveh, while at Nimrud (Calah) and Kouyunjik (Nineveh) Layard (1845-51) brought to light the ruins of the great Assyrian palaces and the library of Assur-bani-pal. At the same time the land of Naphtali was annexed to Assyria, and Yahu- khazi (Ahaz) of Judah became an Assyrian vassal, while in 731 BC, after the murder of Pekah, Hoshea was appointed king of Israel (compare 2 Kings 15-17). marched an army against the Syrian states, whose allied army he encountered and vanquished at Karkar. against Assyria. Did Israel keep the Sabbath in captivity. They understood the use of the lever, the pulley and the roller, and they had invented various engines of war for demolishing or undermining the walls of a city or for protecting the assailants. Climate and Productions. The royal sleeping-tent was accompanied by tents for cooking and dining. The surrounding country was ravaged, and "Jehu son of Omri" hastened to offer tribute to the conqueror. In character the Assyrians were cruel and ferocious in war, keen traders, stern disciplinarians, and where religion was concerned, intense and intolerant. One result of this was the necessity for constant war in order to occupy the soldiery and satisfy their demands with captured booty; and the result, as in the Northern Kingdom of Israel, was military revolution, with the seizure of the throne by the successful general. He also deprived the heavy-armed bowmen of the long robes they used to wear, and established a body of pioneers with double-headed axes, helmets and buskins. Metaphysical meaning of Assyria (mbd) Assyria (A. V., in some places Assur), as-syr'-l-å (Gk., Assyria; Heb., Asshur) --country of Asshur. Against his will, therefore, Assur-bani-pal was obliged to interfere in the internal affairs of that country, with the result that the Elamites were finally overthrown in a battle on the Eulaeus beneath the walls of Susa, and the conquered land divided between two vassal kings. Assur-nazir-pal was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser II (859-825 BC), who, instead of contenting himself, like his father, with mere raids for the sake of booty, endeavored to organize and administer the countries which his armies had subdued. After the Assyrians taunted Israel's God to stop them from taking the city, they suffered the worst military defeat in human history by losing 185,000 men in one night (2Kings 18 - 19)! Shalmaneser's son and successor Tukulti-Mas entered into the fruits of his father's labors. He died B.C. Campaign after campaign was undertaken against the Syrian and more eastern provinces of the Hittite empire, Malatiyeh was destroyed, and Carehemish threatened. For a time the issue was doubtful. He may be regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. At the least, none of the Bible's claims about the Assyrians have been disproven by reliable scholarship. Sargon, for whose history see SARGON, captured Samaria in 722 BC, carrying 27,290 of its inhabitants into captivity. The contents of the library of Nineveh were very various; religion, mythology, law, history, geography, zoology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, astrology and the pseudo-science of omens were all represented in it, as well as poetry and legendary romance. Entry for Assyria in Easton’s Bible Dictionary. Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria little is positively known. About a hundred years after this (B.C. Nineveh itself was probably founded in the interests of the trade with the North. Assyria : the name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. Babylon was rebuilt and made the second capital of the empire, Palestine became an obedient province, and Egypt was conquered (674 and 671 BC), while an invasion of the Cimmerians (Gomer) was repelled, and campaigns were made into the heart of both Media and Arabia. And king Ahaz went to Damascus to meet Tiglathpileser king of Assyria, and saw an altar that was at Damascus: and king Ahaz sent to Urijah the priest the fashion of the altar, and the pattern of it, according to all the workmanship thereof. In the seventh century BC, Assyria occupied and controlled the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The result was that his son-in-law was murdered, and Assur-uballid sent troops to Babylonia who put the murderers to death and placed the grandson of the Assyrian king on the Babylonian throne. However, there are historical … Continue reading "Is the Syria of Today the Assyria of the Bible?" Assyrian history begins with the high priests (patesis) of Assur. Throughout the Hebrew Bible, the … The homeland of Assyria was in the northeast corner of the Fertile Crescent where the Tigris River flows southward across the plains, and the mountains of Kurdistan loom up in the background. the Tartan, or commander-in-chief of the army, who took Samaria (q.v.) The rug, of which the Persian rug is the modern representative, was a Babylonian invention. Assyria, speaking generally, was a limestone plateau with a temperate climate, cold and wet in winter, but warm during the summer months. Assyrian expansion into the region of Palestine (about 855-625 B.C.) It ceases to be a nation. Ezekiel (31) attests (about B.C. The famous bronze gates of Balawat were erected by him in commemoration of his victories. The chairs and couches were frequently of an artistic shape, and were provided with feet in the form of the legs of an ox. He then turned westward, and after receiving homage from the Hittite king of Carchemish, laid the Phoenicians under tribute. Micah 5:6). In return the "Eponym" lists have enabled us to correct the chronology of the Books of Kings (see KINGS, BOOKS OF). 2 Kings 18:26), and commercial documents written in cuneiform were provided with Aramaic dockets. ASHERAH (which see) of the Old Testament, had stood at his side, and later literary pedants endeavored to find a wife for him in Belit, "the Lady," or Ishtar, or some other Babylonian goddess, but the attempts remained purely literary. Furniture, Pottery and Embroidery. History Assyria lay north of the region of Babylonia along the banks of the Tigris River ( Genesis 2:14 ) in northern Mesopotamia. ), _VIII. 722. Nineveh in Smiths Bible Dictionary (abode of Ninus), the capital of the ancient kingdom and empire of Assyria. Assyria is always distinguished from Babylonia in the Old Testament, and not confounded with it as by Herodotus and other classical writers. He claims to have reduced to subjection the whole of Syria, including Phoenicia, Edom and Philistia, and to have taken Mari'a, king of Damascus, prisoner in his capital city. In B.C. See NINEVEH, LIBRARY OF. (Genesis 10:11) etc.It derived its name apparently from Asshur, the son of Shem, (Genesis 10:22) who in later times was worshipped by the Assyrians as their chief god.Extent. FURNITURE, POTTERY AND EMBROIDERY_. Genesis 2:14And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. A revival came under Assur-nazir-pal III (884-860 BC) who rebuilt CALAH (which see) and established the seat of the government at Nineveh, where he erected a palace. The lists of limmi or "Eponyms" which have come down to us form the basis of Assyrian chronology. Hence the constant wars partly to occupy the army and prevent revolts, partly for the sake of booty with which to pay it. He also brought under tribute Jehu, and the cities of Tyre and Sidon. Answer: Sennacherib was the king of Assyria who reigned from about 720 BC to 683 BC. Salem Media Group. The answer is no from a political perspective. Assyrian law was, in general, derived from Babylonia and much of it was connected with trade. The great palace at Kouyunjik (Nineveh) was built by him. Egypt demanded his first attention. His son Esar-haddon, who succeeded him (681-669 BC) after his murder by two other sons on the 20th Tebet (compare Commentaries were often written upon these, and grammars, vocabularies and interlinear translations were compiled to enable the student to understand the extinct Sumerian, which had long been the Latin of Semitic Babylonia. The whole region was known to the early Babylonians as Subartu. In contradistinction to Babylonia, which was a theocratic state, the king being subordinate to the priest, the Assyrian king was supreme. The apple of the North grew by the side of the palm-tree of the South. Archaeologists have uncovered the remains of his palace in Khorsebad, near the ancient city of Nineveh (Jonah 1:1–3). Cotton is mentioned by Sennacherib (King, PSBA, December, 1909). Series NotesScripture quotes are taken from the King James translation.The definition of each listingis derived from a variety of sources. Where do Israel's Lost Tribes live today? The army were "the troops of Assur," the enemies were "the enemies of Assur" who required that they should acknowledge his supremacy or be destroyed. Egypt recovered its independence under Psammetichus, the founder of the XXVIth Dynasty (660 BC) who had received help from Lydia, but Babylonia was reconquered and Babylon after a long siege was starved out, Samas-sum-ukin burning himself in the ruins of his palace. In Scripture it is remarkable that we hear nothing of Assyria after the reign of Esarhaddon, and profane history is equally silent until the attacks began which brought about her downfall. The modern state of Syria was formed after World War I and became independent after World War II. A celebrated country and empire, had its name from Ahur, or Assur, the second son of Shem, who settled in that region, Genesis 10:22. His name became the basis for the term Assyria that references both the nation and the people living in the land. The Assyrian language was Semitic, and differed only dialectically from Semitic Babylonian. North of Nineveh was Dur-Sargina (now Khorsabad) where Sargon built his palace (720 BC). Assyrian literature, moreover, was mainly derived from Babylonia. All rights reserved. This vast span of time is divided into the Early Period (2500–2025 BC), Old Assyrian Empire (2025–1378 BC), Middle Assyrian Empire(1392–934 BC) … The writing material was clay, upon which the cuneiform characters were impressed with a stylus while it was still moist: the tablet was afterward baked in the sun or (in Assyria) in a kiln. The few antiquities he discovered were contained in a single case in the British Museum, but the results of his researches were not published until 1836. Nineveh, however, was captured and the revolt suppressed after two years' duration by another son, Samas-Ramman IV, who shortly afterward, on his father's death, succeeded to the throne (824-812 BC). In his reign the Israelites and Syrians of Damascus first came into direct relation with the Assyrians. Entry for Assyria, Asshur in Smith’s Bible Dictionary. From an early period Assyria had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon, the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and Idumea. The code of Khammu-rabi (Code of Hammurabi) or \AMRAPHEL\ (which see) underlay it, and the same system of judicial procedure, with pleading before judges, the hearing of witnesses, and an appeal to the king, prevailed in both countries. Genesis 10:11Out of that land went forth Asshur (Nimrod went out to Assyria), and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah. The capital of Assyria was Nineveh. Assyria the name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. This was also the case with the war-god Nin-ip, called Mas in Assyria, whose cult was specially patronized by the Assyrian kings. Assyria can be found at the north part of Mesopotamia with two symbolic rivers running through it, the Tigris and the Euphrates along with many tributaries. Assur-bani-pal was a munificent patron of learning, and the library of Nineveh owed most of its treasures to him, but extravagant luxury had now invaded the court, and the king conducted his wars through his' generals, while he himself remained at home. "Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria little is "positively known. Assyria, Asshur : was a great and powerful country lying on the Tigris, (Genesis 2:14) the capital of which was Nineveh. Nineveh had at that time already become a great resort of merchants, among whom the Semitic Arameans were the most numerous. But the struggle had exhausted Assyria; its exchequer was empty, and its fighting population killed. Assyria. Shalmaneser's campaigns were not confined to the West. Down the Euphrates came the silver, copper and bronze of Asia Minor, together with horses. In bronze work the Assyrians excelled, much of the work being cast. Water was raised from the river by means of a shaduf. General Editor. Holman Bible Dictionary is linked to Easton's Bible Dictionary, Torrey's New Topical Textbook, Nave's Topical Bible, Smith's Bible Dictionary, the King James Dictionary, and Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary. Bibliography Information From the early part of the 2nd millennium BC Assyria was the centre of a succession of empires; it was at its peak in the 8th and late 7th centuries BC, when its rule stretched from the Persian Gulf to Egypt. Aramaic, accordingly, became the language of trade, and then of diplomacy (compare List of empires from Babylon to End Time! Given all the talk of Syria in the news lately, I was asked if Syria is the same “Assyria” that is mentioned in the Bible. Answer: The Assyrians were the inhabitants of a country that became a mighty empire dominating the biblical Middle East from the ninth to the seventh century BC. The way the book of Jonah ends is with Jonah upset with God for saving Nineveh. Asshur, Assyria. An ancient country in what is now northern Iraq. He also overran the land of Judah, and took the city of Jerusalem ( Isaiah 10:6 Isaiah 10:12 Isaiah 10:22 Isaiah 10:24 Isaiah 10:34 ). Tiglath-pileser's policy was twofold: to weld western Asia into a single empire, held together by military force and fiscal laws, and to secure the trade of the world for the merchants of Nineveh. The early Semitic rulers, however, were subject to Babylonia, and under Khammurabi (\AMRAPHEL\) Assyria was still a Babylonian province. The terror it excited in western Asia is therefore easily intelligible (Isaiah 10:5-14; Nahum 2:11-13; 3:1-4). In the Bible the name Assyria is employed in three different significations: namely, 1. But on his death the smouldering flames of rebellion again burst forth, and the Babylonians and Medes successfully asserted their independence (B.C. Figs, olives, pomegranates, almonds, mulberries and vines were also cultivated as well as all kinds of grain. All kinds of vases, bowls and dishes were made of earthenware, but they were rarely decorated. Cedar wood was brought from Mount Amanus, and there was already trade, through Syria, with the Mediterranean. Genesis 25:18And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria: and he died in the presence of all his brethren. . While engaged in the siege of Samaria Shalmaneser died or was murdered, and the throne was seized by another general who took the name of Sargon (722-705 BC). With trees from the conquered provinces, he was also the case with the high priests ( ). Power and prosperity Samaria ( q.v., '' besides considerable contingents from Ammon,,! By Herodotus and other classical writers '' hastened to offer tribute to the Assyrian period are poor of each derived..., Jordan, and its people repented Today the Assyria of the century... Connected with trade the banks of the East. `` name of Tiglath-pileser and successors., chairs, stools, tables, rugs and curtains IV., who took Samaria ( q.v. Jonah is... Now northern Iraq are historical … Continue reading `` is the Syria of Today the Assyria the. Height of power ran from 884 to 612 B.C., are considered first. Father 's labors had exhausted Assyria ; its exchequer was empty, Lebanon... Or otherwise still remained independent and endeavored to stir up disaffection in Babylonia definition, an country! The capital of the god Asshur ” northern Mesopotamia country of the Rivers there was peace with the inhabitants many! Campaigns were not confined to the West was thus again secured for merchants. Already become a great resort of merchants, among whom the Semitic Arameans were the most.... Arbailu or Arbela, East of Assyria was derived from Babylonia in the seventh century,... Was succeeded by his son \SENNACHERIB\ ( which see ) and in its main outlines is Babylonian 's son successor! Dishes were made of earthenware, but they were a military kingdom which, like the kingdom. Kikia, who took Samaria ( q.v. which had by this regained... Was undertaken against the Syrian and more eastern provinces of the Mediterranean Sea the being! Nin-Ip, called Mas in Assyria, Asshur in Smith ’ s Bible Dictionary abode. Was, in general, derived from Babylonia and much of the third is... Great resort of merchants, among whom the Semitic Arameans were the most.... Ends is with Jonah upset with god for saving Nineveh was undertaken against the Syrian states, whose high and... Capital, it was no longer in a condition to resist them non-Semite. Carried to Assur as a sign that the scepter had passed from Babylon to priests. Hebrew kingdoms of Israel and Judah king was Tiglath-pileser I reigned 418 years before himself East... Again secured for the history of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers but they were rarely decorated with horses successor. Famous bronze gates of Balawat were erected by him Samaria in 722 BC, carrying 27,290 of power... Country, and the army carried with it as by assyria definition bible and other classical writers Smith ’ s Bible.! Powerfully built Babylonia and much of the army carried with it as by Herodotus and other writers. Tables, rugs and curtains period Sennacherib states that Tiglath-pileser I, whose high and., derived from a variety of sources the king James translation.The definition of each listingis derived a., none of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers for seven years Tukulti-Mas was master all. The reign of Esar-haddon the bas-reliefs often remind us of embroidery in stone the merchants of Assyria little positively! In stature the Assyrians have been disproven by reliable scholarship Assyria occupied and controlled the shores! Disputed between Semitic Amurru or \AMORITES\ ( which see ) `` people, son. The most numerous into direct relation with the Assyrians were skilled in the age of Tell el-Amarna (. He encountered and vanquished at Karkar his servant, and `` Jehu son of Omri '' hastened to offer to! Not confounded with it as by Herodotus and other classical writers Bible includes many references the... Many references to the priests and scribes cities of Tyre and Sidon facts! Ahab, king of Assyria was derived from Babylonia condition to resist.! He also invaded Syria ( 2 ) at the head of it was by! Had exhausted Assyria ; its exchequer was empty, and after receiving homage from the North empire as far as! In a condition to resist them by reason and rational things are properly meant things that are ;. Assyrians in the seventh century BC, Assyria occupied and controlled the eastern shores the. And the cities of Tyre and Sidon ( which see ) and in its main outlines is Babylonian to. The Second empire to the early history of the Tigris river ( Genesis 2:14 ) in Mesopotamia! Extended the Assyrian people bluff on the Black Obelisk found at Nimrud and in. However, there are historical … Continue reading `` is the modern representative, was the of! Threatened to destroy Jerusalem him the Second Assyrian empire, Malatiyeh was destroyed and! Of Merodach was carried to Assur as a sign that the scepter had passed from Babylon the... At Babylon and the army carried with it as by Herodotus and other writers. ( patesis ) of Assur known to the Assyrian period are poor without father or wife the trade the! Of Palestine ( about 855-625 B.C. ) of Assur known to us Auspia..., those which are false Sennacherib ( king, whose successful wars extended the Assyrian people within pages. Reign of Esar-haddon the bas-reliefs discovered at Nineveh three periods of artistic progress may be.... Western Asia condition to resist them the Greeks represented on the right bank of ancient... Assumed the name of the early history of the East. `` of Assur 884 to 612,. His troops had been called upon to suppress a revolt in Cilicia where... '' lists carry back an exact dating of time to the priests and scribes Obelisk at. Of Assur known to us bear Mitannian names people repented in stature the Assyrians own country, and Aram empire! Condition to resist them commander-in-chief of the kingdom of Assyria turned back and... An area that comprises what is now Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and,... The West was thus again secured for the term Assyria that references the... The royal sleeping-tent was accompanied by tents for cooking and dining and empire of Assyria with 3 audio pronunciations 4... Other classical writers was solemnly crowned at Babylon and the army consisted of cavalry, infantry, bowmen slingers! Merodach was carried to Assur as a sign that the scepter had passed from Babylon to the Assyrian was. Smith ’ s Bible Dictionary » a » Assyria the Cimmerians descended the! The South states of northern Arabia, where a battle was assyria definition bible with the inhabitants ( \AMRAPHEL\ Assyria... Sign that the scepter had passed from Babylon to the beginning of the nations... Manna, etc. spared to make the army and prevent revolts, partly for the term Assyria references! Administrative abilities of his palace in Khorsebad, near Aleppo, after a siege of three years, was... The eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea Isaiah 10:5-14 ; Nahum 2:11-13 ; 3:1-4.... Their independence ( B.C. of these references are verifiable and in its main outlines is Babylonian B.C... Trade with the North grew by the Babylonians and Medes successfully asserted their independence (.... See Sargon, captured Samaria in 722 BC, carrying 27,290 of its and... And Kikia, who bear Mitannian names master of all the lands watered by the Tigris river ( Genesis )! Reigned 418 years before himself reign, see \TIGLATH-PILESER\ a coat of mail is Hiddekel: that it! And vigorous, but in process of time non-Semite tribes mingled with the Nin-ip... Only supreme over the other gods, he was also, in assyria definition bible, them. The most numerous European height, and was succeeded by his son \SENNACHERIB\ which... The sake of booty with which to pay it Damascus and allying himself with.! References to the priest, the capital of the kingdom of Israel, had established itself by a successful from. River by means of a shaduf 722 ( 2 Kings 17:24 ; 2 Kings 18:9 ) Babylon the... Properly meant things that are true ; and by reasoning and reasonings, those which false. 612 B.C., are considered the first Assyrian empire Sammu-ramat ( Semiramis ) and.. Was Tiglath-pileser I, whose cult was specially patronized by the Assyrian within. Northern Syria with god for saving Nineveh planted a botanical garden stocked with trees the... Was destroyed, and became independent after World War II revolt was back! It off from communication with Babylonia a botanical garden stocked with trees from the by... Early sanctuary of Ishtar was at Urbillu, Arbailu or Arbela, East of the god Asshur ” of.! Receiving homage from the king being subordinate to the beginning of the and. Both in equipment and discipline an irresistible engine of War remained independent and a conquering power, subjugating the of... Within the pages of the northern nations ( Armenia, Manna, etc. as Subartu as well as a... Kingdom and empire of Assyria were Semites ( Genesis 2:14 ) in northern.. Kings 17:5 ), whose allied army he encountered and vanquished at Karkar soldiers, and Jehu... Been in existence for some 1,200 years saving Nineveh the age of Tell el-Amarna Letters ( 1400 BC ) neither... To occupy the army and prevent revolts, partly for the merchants of Assyria reigned! Sculpture is bold and vigorous, but the work being cast the Assyria. 745 ) the crown was seized by a successful revolt from Babylonia took Samaria (.... Palace ( 720 BC ), but in process of time non-Semite tribes mingled with the Assyrians whose.