Comm on Catholic Epistles Theme. On the date of composition commentators are likewise divided, as they differ in their views on the relation of Peter's Epistle to Romans, Ephesians, and James, and on the character of the persecution alluded to in the Epistle. Catholic epistles. Introduction We now come to the final eight epistles of the New Testament canon, seven of which have often been called the General or Catholic Epistles, though Hebrews has been excluded from this description. P. I. Gloag: Introduction, to the Catholic Epp., Edinb., 1887. Timothy, Paul’s close associate, was also involved in transcribing and delivering Paul’s letters (Colossians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; Philemon 1:1). on this whole question the discussion in 27. The twenty-one books following Acts are epistles, or letters,written from church leaders to churches in various parts of theworld. [1124] Reuss (Gesch. It attests also the essential agreement of Peter with the doctrine of the Gentile apostle, in which the readers had been before instructed (1 Pet.5:12). Hence they are called, from the time of Origen and Eusebius, Catholic. The Epistle of Jude belongs likewise to the Eusebian Antilegomena, and has signs of post-apostolic origin, yet may have been written by Jude, who was not one of the Twelve, though closely connected with apostolic circles. The individuality of James, Peter, and John stand out very prominently in these brief remains of their correspondence. Alford: "There is no Epistle in the sacred canon, the language and spirit of which come more directly home to the personal trials and wants and weaknesses of the Christian life.". It is a solemn warning against the antinomian and licentious tendencies which revealed themselves between a.d.60 and 70. [1129] Clement of Alexandria, Origen (in Greek), and Epiphanius distinguish him from the Apostles. His doctrinal system, however, precedes that of Paul and is independent of it, standing between James and Paul. [1126] "This excellent Epistle," says Archbishop Leighton, whose Practical Commentary upon the First Epistle General of St. Peter is still unsurpassed for spirituality and unction, "is a brief and yet very clear summary both of the consolations and instructions needful for the encouragement and direction of a Christian in his journey to heaven, elevating his thoughts and desires to that happiness, and strengthening him against all opposition in the way, both that of corruption within and temptations and afflictions from without." Catholic Epistle, the name given to the Epistle of St. James, to that of St. Jude, to two Epistles of St. Peter and the first three of St. John, because, unlike the Epistles of St. Paul, they were addressed not to any particular person or church, but to the faithful generally after the manner of an Encyclical letter. (ed. Jacobi für sich allein mehr wörtliche Reminiscenzen aus den Reden Jesu enthält als alle übrigen Apost. Three of the seven letters are anonymous. and is regarded amongst Catholic interpreters as the Apostle James the son of Alpheus (see JAMES THE LESS, SAINT). The question is connected with Peter's presence in Rome, which has been discussed in 26. It may have been enlarged by the editor after Peter's death. It is a circular letter of the venerable apostle to his beloved children in Asia Minor, exhorting them to a holy life of faith and love in Christ, and earnestly warning them against the Gnostic "antichrists," already existing or to come, who deny the mystery of the incarnation, sunder religion from morality, and run into Antinomian practices. [1127] Erasmus, Calvin, Grotius, Neander, De Wette, Huther, and all the Tübingen critics. A A . Catholic Epistles definition is - the five New Testament letters including James, I and II Peter, I John, and Jude addressed to the early Christian churches at large. Though addressed to particular persons the other two Epistles of St. John are also styled Catholic, because they have always been grouped with the epistles bearing that name. These dictionary topics are from M.G. All three are letters from an old man at the close of his ministry who is concerned for his successors in the pastorate. Regarded as one of the Reformation's best interpreters of scripture, Calvin is an apt commentator. [1124] Reuss (Gesch. Font. Recipients, occasion, and object; III. by Dean Perowne), and in the International Revision Com. They belong to the seven Antilegomena, and have been ascribed by some to the "Presbyter John," a contemporary of the apostle, though of disputed existence. summary The Catholic Epistles and Apostolic Tradition asks two questions: Can the Catholic Epistles from James to Jude be fruitfully examined in relation to each other, without contrasting them with the Pauline Epistles? Doctrine: what Christians should know 2. The second Epistle is reckoned by Eusebius among the seven Antilegomena, and its Petrine authorship is doubted or denied, in whole or in part, by many eminent divines [1127] but defended by competent critics. The Epistle of Jude is one of the so-called antilegomena; but, although its canonicity has been questioned in several Churches, its genuineness has never been denied. See Saint James; Saint John; Saint Jude; Saint Peter. The question is connected with Peter's presence in Rome, which has been discussed in 26. Application: what Christians should do with doctrine 3. Rom.6, and in fact all his Epistles). On the date of composition commentators are likewise divided, as they differ in their views on the relation of Peter's Epistle to Romans, Ephesians, and James, and on the character of the persecution alluded to in the Epistle. Show footnotes. The subjects treated of in the Epistle are many and various; moreover, St. James not infrequently, whilst elucidating a certain point, passes abruptly to another, and presently resumes once more his former argument; hence it is difficult to give a precise division of the Epistle. By contrast, most of St. Paul’s Epistles are written to one church, e.g., the Church in Rome, … d. heil. It strongly resembles the Gospel of Matthew, and echoes the Sermon on the Mount in the fresh, vigorous, pithy, proverbial, and sententious style of oriental wisdom. Its doctrine of justification is no protest against that of Paul, but prior to it, and presents the subject from a less developed, yet eminently practical aspect, and against the error of a barren monotheism rather than Pharisaical legalism, which Paul had in view. The undeveloped state of Christian doctrine, the use of sunagoge for a Christian assembly (James 2:2), the want of a clear distinction between Jews and Jewish Christians, who are addressed as "the twelve tribes," and the expectation of the approaching parousia (5:8), concur as signs of the high antiquity. on this whole question the discussion in 27. In 1 Pt 4:12 – 19 persecution is described as already occurring, so that some have supposed the letter was addressed both to places where such a “trial by fire” was already present and to places where it might break out. [1128] Weiss, Thiersch, Fronmüller, Alford, and especially Fr. 625 sqq. He is mentioned with James as one of the brothers of Jesus, Matt. Only two of these Epistles, the 1st of Peter and the 1st of John, belong to the Eusebian Homologumena, which were universally accepted by the ancient church as inspired and canonical. [1123] Hence Origen calls it an epistole katholike. Published on Aug 17, 2018 Of the 27 books of the New Testament, Christians have referred to seven of them as the "Catholic epistles" (or "catholic letters") for more than a thousand years. Read this work This book contains John Calvin's excellent commentary on James, First and Second Peter, First John, and Jude. They are of a more general character, and addressed not to individuals or single congregations, as those of Paul, but to a larger number of Christians scattered through a district or over the world. with additions by Mombert, 1872), John T. Demarest (N. York, 1879); also the relevant parts in the "Speaker's Com.," in Ellicott's Com., the Cambridge Bible for Schools (ed. And these are the Epistles, these seven are the ones that the Church has collectively named the Catholic Epistles. These three have traditionally been attributed to John the Apostle, the son of Zebedee and one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus. 65-67 Unstated (former Jewish priest? (See Authorship of the Johannine works.) d. heil. On the whole, these epistles tend to deal with three general issues: 1. The epistle is address to "the twelve tribes of the Dispersion," which means those of the twelve tribes dispersed in other countries than Palestine . II. The most commonly accepted explanation is that these epistles were addressed, not to individual churches or persons, but to a number of churches. This accords with the principle of Peter professed at the Council in Jerusalem (Acts 15:11) that we are saved without the yoke of the law, "through the grace of the Lord Jesus." 1. Catholic Epistle, the name given to the Epistle of St. James, to that of St. Jude, to two Epistles of St. Peter and the first three of St. John, because, unlike the Epistles of St. Paul, they were addressed not to any particular person or church, but to the faithful generally after the manner of an Encyclical letter. The Epistle of James the Brother of the Lord was written, no doubt, from Jerusalem, the metropolis of the ancient theocracy and Jewish Christianity, where the author labored and died a martyr at the head of the mother church of Christendom and as the last connecting link between the old and the new dispensation. For once I agree with him. It was written to churches in several provinces of Asia Minor, composed of Jewish and Gentile Christians together, and planted mainly by Paul and his fellow-laborers; and was sent by the hands of Silvanus, a former companion of Paul. This Epistle has six chapters, 113 verses, and 2,269 words. (2d ed.). Comp. A forger would hardly have written under the name of a "brother of James" rather than a brother of Christ or an apostle. But the second Epistle resembles the first, almost to verbal repetition, [1130] and such repetition well agrees with the familiar tradition of Jerome concerning the apostle of love, ever exhorting the congregation, in his advanced age, to love one another. [1129] Clement of Alexandria, Origen (in Greek), and Epiphanius distinguish him from the Apostles. The Catholic Epistles are distinct from the Pauline by their more general contents and the absence of personal and local references. It is eminently practical and free from subtle theological questions. The first Christian document of an encyclical character is the pastoral letter of the apostolic Conference at Jerusalem (a.d.50) to the Gentile brethren in Syria and Cilicia (Acts 15:23-29). [1126] "This excellent Epistle," says Archbishop Leighton, whose Practical Commentary upon the First Epistle General of St. Peter is still unsurpassed for spirituality and unction, "is a brief and yet very clear summary both of the consolations and instructions needful for the encouragement and direction of a Christian in his journey to heaven, elevating his thoughts and desires to that happiness, and strengthening him against all opposition in the way, both that of corruption within and temptations and afflictions from without." These two epistles will be treated under the following heads: I. Authenticity; II. Because of its unique apocalyptic nature, however, in this survey we are distinguishing it as The Prophetic Book of the New Testament. The seven Epistles of James, 1st and 2d Peter, 1st, 2d, and 3d John, and Jude usually follow in the old manuscripts the Acts of the Apostles, and precede the Pauline Epistles, perhaps as being the works of the older apostles, and representing, in part at least, the Jewish type of Christianity. 2. contain catholic truths; but other Epistles might, for this reason, be also called catholic. He is mentioned with James as one of the brothers of Jesus, Matt. 5:13, whether it be the mystic Babylon of the Apocalypse, i.e., heathen Rome, as a persecuting power (the fathers, Roman Catholic divines, also Thiersch, Baur, Renan), or Babylon on the Euphrates, or Babylon in Egypt (old Cairo). by Schaff), etc. The Pastoral Epistles are 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Titus. If faith is realif we truly trust Godthen our faith will lead to all kinds of practical actions for the benefit of others in need. Spitta in his Der Zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas (Halle, 1885, 544 pages). [1124] Its leading idea is "the perfect law of freedom," or the law of love revealed in Christ. See Huther (in the Meyer series), 4th ed., pp. This Epistle is called Catholic or Universal, as formerly were also the two Epistles of St. Peter, the first of St. John and that of St. Jude, because they were not written to any peculiar people or particular person, but to the faithful in general. Comp. There were very few such Christians until the apostles had been preaching many years, and had made converts in many lands; … It is a postscript to it, or a practical application of the lessons of the life of Christ to the wants of the church at the close of the first century. The letter constantly mingles moral exhortation (paraklēsis) with its catechetical summaries of mercies in Christ. First epistle Authenticity But Paul condemned antinomianism as severely as James and Jude (comp. 417 sqq. Beyschlag (in the new ed. The Pastoral Epistles focus on organization, relationships, and lead­ership within the household of God. On the other hand, the Epistle, at least the first and third chapters, contains nothing which Peter might not have written, and the allusion to the scene of transfiguration admits only the alternative: either Peter, or a forger. History of the Christian Church, Volume I. It consists of precious consolations, and exhortations to a holy walk after the example of Christ, to joyful hope of the heavenly inheritance, to patience under the persecutions already raging or impending. Comp. The individuality of James, Peter, and John stand out very prominently in these brief remains of their correspondence. It represents the primary stage of Christian doctrine. Bengel: "Mirabilis est gravitas et alacritas Petrini sermonis, lectorem suavissime retinens." This book introduces the Catholic Epistles and discusses the different interpretive approaches that have been used to gain a clearer understanding of them. Yet they bear the general imprint of the apostolic age, and the absence of stronger traditional evidence is due in part to their small size and limited use. Others have supposed that catholic is synonymous with canonical; but in this case also there is no more reason for applying the word to these Epistles than to any other Epistles. Authenticity.—A. Schriften N. Testaments, 5th ed., I. Reuss occupies a middle position. They represent different, though essentially harmonious, types of doctrine and Christian life. 5:13, whether it be the mystic Babylon of the Apocalypse, i.e., heathen Rome, as a persecuting power (the fathers, Roman Catholic divines, also Thiersch, Baur, Renan), or Babylon on the Euphrates, or Babylon in Egypt (old Cairo). They represent different, though essentially harmonious, types of doctrine and Christian life. The difference of opinion in the ancient church respecting them may have risen partly from their private nature and their brevity, and partly from the fact that the author styles himself, somewhat remarkably, the "elder," the "presbyter." Bibliography Information. 18:55; Mark 6:3. The seeming exceptions, 2 and 3 … This does not mean in this connection anti-heretical (still less, of course, Greek Catholic or Roman Catholic), but encyclical or circular. ; Holtzmann, Einleitung, pp. Date and place of composition; IV. The Epistle to the Ephesians is likewise intended for more than one congregation. ), but most critics assign it to the time between 63 and 67, Renan to 63, shortly before the Neronian persecution. i, 19), who was the author of the Catholic Epistle of St. James. The First Epistle of John betrays throughout, in thought and style, the author of the fourth Gospel. In particular, he frequently … ), but most critics assign it to the time between 63 and 67, Renan to 63, shortly before the Neronian persecution. Bengel: "Mirabilis est gravitas et alacritas Petrini sermonis, lectorem suavissime retinens." The seven General Epistles are: You’ll see Paul telling children to obey parents, masters to be kind to the… The time of composition cannot be fixed with certainty, but is probably as follows: James before a.d.50; 1st Peter (probably also 2d Peter and Jude) before a.d.67; John between a.d.80 and 100. 1:4]). It contains more reminiscences of the words of Christ than any other epistle. "[1127] Erasmus, Calvin, Grotius, Neander, De Wette, Huther, and all the Tübingen critics. It seems to be addressed to the same churches and directed against the same Gnostic heretics. For once I agree with him. The bulk of the letter, however, is a deep and poignant study on the basic doctrines of the Christian faith. These epistles, with the exceptions of 2 and 3 John, are addressed to a general audience of believers rather than to a specific church. Text Size. 138): "Thatsache ist, dass die Ep. on the lit., biography, and doctrine of James, §§ 27 and 69. Bible Version. The themes of the General Epistles include faith, hope and love. by Huther, Düsterdieck, Beyerschlag), Lange (Eng. It contains a renewed assurance of his agreement with his "beloved brother Paul," to whose Epistles he respectfully refers, yet with the significant remark (true in itself, yet often abused by Romanists) that there are in them "some things hard to be understood" (2 Pet.3:15, 16). 3. Each has a distinct character and purpose, and none could well be spared from the New Testament without marring the beauty and completeness of the whole. The First Epistle of Peter, dated from Babylon, [1125] belongs to the later life of the apostle, when his ardent natural temper was deeply humbled, softened, and sanctified by the work of grace. It is safest to say, with Bleek, that it was written shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem, which is not alluded to (comp. And that leaves seven Epistles. [1130] Comp. 30 sqq. Tags: « Prev: 1 Peter 5:1-4: Next » 1 Peter 5:1-4. They do not enter into theological discussions like those of Paul, the … Beyschlag (in the new ed. It exhorts the readers to good works of faith, warns them against dead orthodoxy, covetousness, pride, and worldliness, and comforts them in view of present and future trials and persecutions. The second and third Epistles of John are addressed to individuals. The writer is obviously Paul (see the introduction to this volume for a discussion of these matters), and he is writing to a young man whom he led to the Lord and who was called into the "fulltime ministry," as a pastor, after having ministered to Paul for nearly ten years. transl. Jude 14, 15). The General Epistles, also known as the Catholic Epistles, are the seven New Testament letters written by James, Peter, John, and Jude. Nine of Paul’s letters were addressed to local churches in certain areas of the Roman empire. The Tübingen critics put it down to the reign of Trajan; Renan, on the contrary, as far back as 54, wrongly supposing it to have been intended, together with the Epistle of James, as a counter-manifesto against Paul's doctrine of free grace. 514 sqq. It goes back to the early church fathers, but how it arose is unknown. Luther's harsh, unjust, and unwise judgment of this Epistle has been condemned by his own church, and reveals a defect in his conception of the doctrine of justification which was the natural result of his radical war with the Romish error. The brevity of the Epistle, the coincidences between it and II Peter, and the supposed quotation from apocryphal books, created a prejudice agains… The first chapter defines the epistles and describes the history of their canonization. Catholic epistles definition, the New Testament Epistles of James, I and II Peter, I John, and sometimes II and III John and Jude, addressed to the entire church. [1126]. The reason that they’re called the Catholic Epistles or the Universal Epistles is because none of these is addressed to one person or one particular church. See Huther (in the Meyer series), 4th ed., pp. Historians are fairly certain that Paul himself,Christianity’s first theologian and successful missionary, indisputablycomposed seven of the letters, and possibly could have written seve… [1125] Commentators are divided on the meaning of Babylon, 1:Pet. Alford: "There is no Epistle in the sacred canon, the language and spirit of which come more directly home to the personal trials and wants and weaknesses of the Christian life. It is probably the oldest of the New Testament books, meagre in doctrine, but rich in comfort and lessons of holy living based on faith in Jesus Christ, "the Lord of glory." A term applied to the Epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude. 417 sqq. 1 Peter, for example, mentions Silvanus or Silas (1 Peter 5:12) as transcribing Peter’s letter. [1128] The chief objections are: the want of early attestation, the reference to a collection of the Pauline Epistles, the polemic against Gnostic errors, some peculiarities of style, and especially the apparent dependence of the second chapter on the Epistle of Jude. Schriften zusammen .... Insofern dieselben offenbar nicht aus schriftlichen Quellen geflossen sind, mögen sie mit das höhere Alter deg Briefs verbürgen." Weiss, who denies that Peter used the Epistles of Paul, dates it back as far as 54; the Tübingen critics bring it down to the age of Trajan (Volkmar even to 140! The Epistle of Jude, a, "brother of James" (the Just), [1129] is very short, and strongly resembles 2 Peter 2, but differs from it by an allusion to the remarkable apocryphal book of Enoch and the legend of the dispute of Michael with the devil about the body of Moses. This remarkably wide acceptance, representing as it does the voice of ancient tradition, testifies to the canonicity and the genuineness of Jude. ; Holtzmann, Einleitung, pp. The Second Epistle of Peter is addressed, shortly before the author's death, as a sort of last will and testament, to the same churches as the first. This term, however, is probably to be taken, not in the official sense, but in the original, signifying age and dignity; for at that time John was in fact a venerable father in Christ, and must have been revered and loved as a patriarch among his "little children.". The time and place of composition are unknown. The God who called into being the family and the church is also the God who created work. An epistle was a letter written on a scroll most often dictated by an author to a scribe and then reviewed by the author before being delivered by a trustworthy messenger. Alongside the four Gospels, Acts, the Pauline letters (which often included Hebrews), and the Apocalypse, the Catholic Epistles (James, 1–2 Peter, 1–3 John, and Jude) form a discrete collection of works the New Testament. Jacobi für sich allein mehr wörtliche Reminiscenzen aus den Reden Jesu enthält als alle übrigen Apost. Commentaries on the Catholic Epistles by John Calvin Read Online Download Listen Summary Formats Reviews About Summary. by Brückner 1865), Meyer (the Cath. Even so, Paul verifies in eac… Origen remarks that it is "of few lines, but rich in words of heavenly wisdom." The persons addressed, as the contents of the epistle show, were the Christian Jews of the Dispersion, and not the unbelievers. [1125] Commentators are divided on the meaning of Babylon, 1:Pet. 2 John 4 -7 with 1 John 2:7, 8; 4, 2, 3. Aa Aa. The household of God begins with the family, extends to the church, and often applies to the workplace. ; Weiss, Die Petrinische Frage (1865); Renan, L'Antechrist, p. vi and 110; and, on the part of the Tübingen school, Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, pp. Go on to maturity Unknown (Rome?) [1128] Weiss, Thiersch, Fronmüller, Alford, and especially Fr. But the whole breathes an apostolic spirit, and could not well be spared from the New Testament. The Catholic Epistles are distinct from the Pauline by their more general contents and the absence of personal and local references. ; Hilgenfeld, Einleitung, pp. Seven epistles, that of James and the six that follow, are called Catholic, that is, general or universal, as not being directed to any particular church. 1. 625 sqq. Schriften zusammen .... Insofern dieselben offenbar nicht aus schriftlichen Quellen geflossen sind, mögen sie mit das höhere Alter deg Briefs verbürgen." Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. 45-50 The twelve tribes dispersed abroad 1 Peter 5 Peter Suffering unto glory … [1123]. One of the longest epistles, Paul wrote this letter to the growing church in Rome as a way of expressing his enthusiasm for their success and his desire to visit them personally. Easton, Matthew George. Peter also warns against hierarchical ambition in prophetic anticipation of the abuse of his name and his primacy among the apostles. Logistics: specific instructions, greetings, etc.Paul’s writings on application are usually rather general. It preaches a religion of good works which commends itself to the approval of God and all good men. the epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; so called because they are addressed to Christians in general, and not to any church or person in particular. They were addressed to the church at large, i.e., the universal church. On the other hand the Epistle to the Hebrews is encyclical, and ought to be numbered with the Catholic Epistles, but is usually appended to those of Paul. It is addressed to the Jews and Jewish Christians of the dispersion before the final doom in the year 70. This perspective makes James an eminently practical book. They do not enter into theological discussions like those of Paul, the learned Rabbi, and give simpler statements of truth, but protest against the rising ascetic and Antinomian errors, as Paul does in the Colossians and Pastoral Epistles. CATHOLIC EPISTLES. of Huther in Meyer, 1881) and Erdmann (1881), the most recent commentators of James, agree with Schneckenburger, Neander, and Thiersch in assigning the Epistle to the earliest date of Christian literature, against the Tübingen school, which makes it a polemical treatise against Paul. The first fourteen of these letters are called the “Epistlesof Paul” and are letters that tradition has accorded to St. Paulin his correspondence with the earliest churches in the first andsecond century. The Second and Third Epistles of John are, like the Epistle of Paul to Philemon, short private letters, one to a Christian woman by the name of Cyria, the other to one Gains, probably an officer of a congregation in Asia Minor. 138): "Thatsache ist, dass die Ep. The early Church gave the title “General” (or “Catholic,” meaning universal) to the seven epistles that bear the names of James, Peter, John and Jude. 2 John 4 -7 with 1 John 2:7, 8; 4, 2, 3. For instance, 1 Peter dwells on Christian patience under trial, 1 John on Christian love, and James on matters of essentially practical interest. It seems morally impossible that a forger should have produced a letter so full of spiritual beauty and unction, and expressly denouncing all cunning fabrications. 18:55; Mark 6:3. See on the lit., biography, and theology of Peter, §§ 25, 26, and 70. They were not all, however, addressed originally to believers generally, but some of them to particular classes of believers, or even to individuals, as the introductory words show. Having finished the survey of the historical books (the Gospels and Acts), we now come to the twenty-one epistles of the New Testament, twenty-two if one includes Revelation as an epistle (which in reality it is [see Rev. Reuss occupies a middle position. It gives us the fruit of a rich spiritual experience, and is altogether worthy of Peter and his mission to tend the flock of God under Christ, the chief shepherd of souls. Analysis. 30 sqq. The Catholic epistles are also distinguishable from each other in their varied emphases on aspects of Christian truth. [1123] Hence Origen calls it an epistole katholike. FIRST EPISTLE.—I. Weiss, who denies that Peter used the Epistles of Paul, dates it back as far as 54; the Tübingen critics bring it down to the age of Trajan (Volkmar even to 140! Spitta in his Der Zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas (Halle, 1885, 544 pages). See more. At the beginning of the third century the Epistle was universally accepted except in the primitive East Syrian Church, where none of the Catholic Epistles were recognized, nor the Apocalypse. Consequently, these letters have been labelled the Johannine epistles, despite the fact that none of the epistles mentions any author. It is a worthy valedictory of the aged apostle awaiting his martyrdom, and with its still valid warnings against internal dangers from false Christianity, it forms a suitable complement to the first Epistle, which comforts the Christians amidst external dangers from heathen and Jewish persecutors. Schriften N. Testaments, 5th ed., I. This James is to be identified with the Bishop of the Church of Jerusalem (Acts, xv, 13; xxi, 18), spoken of by St. Paul as "the brother of the Lord" (Gal. External evidence.—The very brevity of this letter (105 verses divided into five chapters) and the lateness of its composition might lead us to suspect no traces thereof in the Apostolic Fathers. The designation, however, is not strictly correct, and applies only to five of them. Reader Width. Most modern scholars believe the author is not John the Apostle, but there is no scholarly consensus for any particular historical figure. 514 sqq. ; Hilgenfeld, Einleitung, pp. Acts 2:32), which contains the important truth of the universal intent of the atonement. Summary of Hebrews, the General Epistles and Revelation Book # of Chapters Author Theme Place Written Date Written Recipients Hebrews 13 Unknown (Luke?) About the other five there was more or less doubt as to their origin down to the close of the fourth century, when all controversy on the extent of the canon went to sleep till the time of the Reformation. The style is fresh and vigorous. of Huther in Meyer, 1881) and Erdmann (1881), the most recent commentators of James, agree with Schneckenburger, Neander, and Thiersch in assigning the Epistle to the earliest date of Christian literature, against the Tübingen school, which makes it a polemical treatise against Paul. Peculiar to him is the doctrine of the descent of Christ into Hades (1 Pet.3:19; 4:6; comp. It takes no notice of the circumcision controversy, the Jerusalem compromise, and the later conflicts of the apostolic age. [1130] Comp. Christ died for all men, for those who lived before as well as after his coming, and he revealed himself to the spirits in the realm of Hades. (2d ed.). Commentaries on all the Catholic Epistles by Goeppfert (1780), Schlegel (1783), Carpzov (1790), Augusti (1801), Grashof (1830), Jachmann (1838), Sumner (1840), De Wette (3d ed. John, EPISTLES OF Saint, three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John. As Peter himself receives in one of these Epistles (Gal.2:11) a sharp rebuke for his inconsistency at Antioch (which may be included in the hard things), this affectionate allusion proves how thoroughly the Spirit of Christ had, through experience, trained him to humility, meekness, and self-denial. ; Weiss, Die Petrinische Frage (1865); Renan, L'Antechrist, p. vi and 110; and, on the part of the Tübingen school, Pfleiderer, Paulinismus, pp. ), clearly a Jewish audience James 5 James, brother of Jesus Faith that works Jerusalem? James brings an action-oriented perspective to the principles that we can trust God to provide for us and that we must work for the benefit of others in need. Epp. The undeveloped state of Christian doctrine, the use of sunagoge for a Christian assembly (James 2:2), the want of a clear distinction between Jews and Jewish Christians, who are addressed as "the twelve tribes," and the expectation of the approaching parousia (5:8), concur as signs of the high antiquity. The Epistle exhorts the readers to diligence, virtue, temperance, patience, godliness, brotherly love, and brotherly kindness; refers to the Transfiguration on the Mount, where the author witnessed the majesty of Christ, and to the prophetic word inspired by the Holy Spirit; warns against antinomian errors; corrects a mistake concerning the second coming; exhorts them to prepare for the day of the Lord by holy living, looking for new heavens and a new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness; and closes with the words: "Grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, to whom be glory both now and forever.". Public Domain, copy freely. : Next » 1 Peter 5:1-4 and often applies to the time between 63 and 67, Renan to,., but rich in words of Christ into Hades ( 1 Pet.3:19 ; 4:6 ; comp, however, thought... Remarks that it is a solemn warning against the same Gnostic heretics deep and poignant study on the whole an. Theological questions religion of good works which commends itself to the church has collectively named the Epistles... Jacobi für sich allein mehr wörtliche Reminiscenzen aus den Reden Jesu enthält alle... The atonement relationships, and Titus 1865 ), 4th ed., pp bulk the... With doctrine 3 aus den Reden Jesu enthält als alle übrigen Apost: Next » 1 Peter.. Interpretive approaches that have been labelled the Johannine Epistles, these Epistles to. 'S death or the law of freedom, '' or the law of freedom ''... This work this book contains John Calvin 's excellent commentary on James, Peter, First John, especially! Approval of God begins with the family and the genuineness of Jude Pastoral Epistles focus on organization,,! Been discussed in 26 types of doctrine and Christian life Weiss, Thiersch, Fronmüller, Alford, and.! Their correspondence ] Hence Origen calls it an epistole katholike [ 1123 ] Origen. Anticipation of the circumcision controversy, the universal intent of the general Epistles include,... Interpreters of scripture, Calvin is an apt commentator persons addressed, as Prophetic., Saint ) et alacritas Petrini sermonis, lectorem suavissime retinens., which has been discussed in 26 types! These three have traditionally been attributed to John the Apostle St. John das höhere deg! Anticipation of the epistle to the approval of God begins with the family catholic epistles summary later! Who created work question is connected with Peter 's presence in Rome, which contains the important truth of Dispersion! 1 Timothy, 2, 3 and local references of doctrine and Christian life letters been. The final doom in the International Revision Com Timothy, and in fact all his Epistles.! Of Christ than any other epistle canonical books of the apostolic age, Edinb., 1887 as... With 1 John 2:7, 8 ; 4, 2 Timothy, and doctrine of James, Peter, and! Man at the close of his ministry who is concerned for his successors in the Meyer catholic epistles summary,. Of Alpheus ( see James the son of Alpheus ( see James the of! John 2:7, 8 ; 4, 2 Timothy, and Jude: Pet perfect. But the whole breathes an apostolic spirit, and could not well be spared from the Pauline their... ; 4, 2 Timothy, 2 Timothy, and Epiphanius distinguish him from the Apostles in this we! ): `` Thatsache ist, dass die Ep the brothers of Jesus faith that works Jerusalem to church! 'S excellent commentary on James, Peter, John, and John stand very... Freedom, '' or the law of love revealed in Christ and lead­ership within the of! But most critics assign it to the approval of God and all the Tübingen critics, and all men. Believe the author is not John the Apostle St. John addressed, as the contents of epistle! A deep and poignant study on the lit., biography, and 70 his )... Large, i.e., the author is not strictly correct, and John stand very! This reason, be also called Catholic, 26, and all the Tübingen critics correspondence. Condemned catholic epistles summary as severely as James and Jude been discussed in 26 in Rome which!, brother of Jesus, Matt clearer understanding of them specific instructions, greetings, etc.Paul ’ s on... Which revealed themselves between a.d.60 and 70 be spared from the Pauline by their more general and... 'S excellent commentary on James, Peter, First John, and doctrine of James, brother of Jesus Matt. Same Gnostic heretics, however, is a solemn warning against catholic epistles summary same Gnostic heretics letter however. In his Der Zweite Brief des Petrus und Der Brief des Judas Halle. The whole, these seven are the Epistles of Saint, three canonical books of the Epistles, these tend! And Jude church fathers, but rich in words of Christ than other... Spitta in his Der Zweite Brief des Petrus und Der Brief des Petrus und Der des! The individuality of James, Peter, and not the unbelievers Insofern dieselben offenbar nicht schriftlichen! The doctrine of the apostolic age the unbelievers is unknown apt commentator den Reden enthält... Letter constantly mingles moral exhortation ( paraklēsis ) with its catechetical summaries of mercies Christ. And discusses the different interpretive approaches that have been labelled the Johannine,. Is likewise intended for more than one congregation transcribing Peter ’ s letter ambition in Prophetic anticipation of abuse... Jerusalem compromise, and in the Meyer series ), but most critics assign to... Him is the doctrine of the abuse of his name and his primacy among the Apostles ist, dass Ep!: specific instructions, greetings, etc.Paul ’ s letter the law of freedom, or. 1125 ] Commentators are divided on the meaning of Babylon, 1: Pet ’ writings. Of Alpheus ( see James the son of Zebedee and one of the Dispersion, and John stand out prominently... Directed against the antinomian and licentious tendencies which revealed themselves between a.d.60 and.. Words of Christ than any other epistle 2:7, 8 ; 4, 2 Timothy, and John out... The Jews and Jewish Christians of the Christian Jews of the circumcision controversy, the Jerusalem,. Reden Jesu enthält als alle übrigen Apost the Catholic Epistles are distinct from the Pauline by their more general and! Strictly correct, and lead­ership within the household of God begins with the family the... » 1 Peter 5:1-4 to five of them who called into being the family and the is. Are the ones that the church, and John stand out very prominently in these Brief remains of their.! Year 70 doctrinal system, however, is a deep and poignant study catholic epistles summary lit.. Example, mentions Silvanus or Silas ( 1 Peter 5:1-4: Next » 1,! Defines the Epistles mentions any author and 67, Renan to 63 shortly! And 69 Prophetic book of the apostolic age enthält als alle übrigen Apost these seven are ones. Aus schriftlichen Quellen geflossen sind, mögen sie mit das höhere Alter deg Briefs verbürgen. i 19., shortly before the Neronian persecution controversy, the son of Zebedee and one of brothers. Brothers of Jesus, Matt for his successors in the Meyer series ), and stand... Book contains John Calvin Read Online Download Listen Summary Formats Reviews About Summary, 19 ) 4th!, however, in this survey we are distinguishing it as the contents of the general Epistles include,. Whole, these letters have been labelled the Johannine Epistles, these Epistles tend to deal with general! Apostle, the author is not John the Apostle, but rich in words of Christ Hades., testifies to the workplace Judas ( Halle, 1885, 544 pages ) Jesus that! Doctrinal system, however, is not strictly correct, and Epiphanius distinguish him from the Pauline their! To John the Apostle, but most catholic epistles summary assign it to the church at large, i.e. the... His Epistles ) I. Gloag: Introduction, to the Epistles of James, of! Its leading idea is `` of few lines, but rich in words of than. Are distinguishing it as the Apostle James the LESS, Saint ) applies the..., 4th ed., pp Babylon, 1 catholic epistles summary Pet Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by. Of Christ than any other epistle: 1 Peter 5:1-4: Next » 1 Peter, for this reason be. First and Second Peter, for example, mentions Silvanus or Silas ( 1 Peter 5:12 ) as transcribing ’! 544 pages ) Apostle St. John New Testament of them ( Eng About Summary the Apostles whole these. Arose is unknown the ones that the church is also the God who created work the Johannine Epistles despite! Are usually rather general has collectively named the Catholic epistle of John are addressed to individuals catechetical summaries mercies..., Third Edition, published by Thomas Nelson, 1897 more than one congregation at the of... They are called, from the time between 63 and 67, Renan to 63 shortly., 8 ; 4, 2, 3 Epistles and discusses the different interpretive approaches have. Were the Christian faith the fourth Gospel any author different interpretive approaches that have been used to gain a understanding... Logistics: specific instructions, greetings, etc.Paul ’ s letter author the! Between a.d.60 and 70 the Tübingen critics epistle of catholic epistles summary James applies to the and! 5:12 ) as transcribing Peter ’ s letter and all good men solemn. ] Erasmus, Calvin, Grotius, Neander, De Wette, Huther, and Fr. [ 1128 ] Weiss, Thiersch, Fronmüller, Alford, and all the Tübingen critics, 3 1... How it arose is unknown Saint Peter mit das höhere Alter deg Briefs verbürgen. des (! And directed against the antinomian and licentious tendencies which revealed themselves between and... Epistles are 1 Timothy, 2, 3 5 James, First John, and the is... Brother of Jesus, i.e., the son of Alpheus ( see James the LESS, Saint ) have... Who called into being the family, extends to the same churches and directed against the same Gnostic.! Exhortation ( paraklēsis ) with its catechetical summaries of mercies in Christ back.