Attempt to establish Milicia plantation has been constrained by Phytolyma lata attack on the young plants which subsequently result to gall formation and dieback of the plant8. These specific conditions are characterized by presence of oxalate, bacteria for oxalate oxidation and a dry season, which are common conditions in which Milicia tends to grow. Male trees start flowering after c. 10 years while females flower for the first time after 15 years.1 It … Khaya senegalensis, Khaya grandifolia Mansonia altissima, Albizia zygia, ... [12], height growth of Balanites aegyptiaca can be very slow at the seedlings stage, but at the saplings stage, the growth rate increases drastically. Extensive trials of other species, mainly softwoods and Eucalypts, … It is thought sacred in its native land, where the species is … Product Details. Bosu, J.R. Cobbinah, J.D. [6], The tree can be used in the control of erosion, and for providing shade as a roadside tree in urban areas. In this study, daily application of M. excelsa ointment enhanced wound contraction, epithelialization and fibroplasia. species growth performance as well as its survival rate in plantation establishments (Irvine, 1961). [3] A study has reported that most of the remaining Iroko trees in Benin were conserved on farms (Ouinsavi and Sokpon, 2008). Milicia excelsa, etc ; Bursaphelenchus; females; morphometry; new species; phylogeny; tail; vulva; wood; Cameroon; Italy; Show all 11 Subjects Abstract: A new species of Bursaphelenchus, extracted from unprocessed logs of Milicia excelsa from Cameroon and arriving in the port of Leghorn, Tuscany, Central Italy, is described. The treatments were four weeding regimes: Two weeks weeding regime, 4 weeks weeding regime, 6 weeks weeding regime and control (3 months weeding interval). The Federal College of Forestry Site is located on the latitude 7.50 N and longitude 3.90 E. The climate condition of the area is tropical with an annual rainfall range of 180-700 mm per annum while the annual temperature is 34.40°C the daily humility is about 60%17. It is resistant to termites and is used for construction, furniture, joinery, panelling, floors and boats. This assumption corroborate the report by Jonsson et al.25 that of coffee berry borer infestation on cocoa were reduced in shade plantation than on sun-exposed plantations. Exploitation is often unsustainable - in the 1980's, for example, the extraction rate of Milicia regia and Milicia excelsa in Ghana was estimated to be about 173,000 m³ per year, whereas the regeneration rate was estimated to be only about 29,000 m³ per year. It is one of two species (the other being Milicia regia) yielding timber commonly known as African teak, iroko, intule, kambala, moreira, mvule, odum and tule. Attempts to establish Milicia plantations in Africa have been hampered by gall-forming psyllids of the genus Phytolyma. spp.) These results provide scientific evidence showing the efficacy of M. excelsa leaves in wound healing. If the numbers of mates available are not high enough because dispersion methods are not effective over long distances, then the species will begin to suffer from inbreeding depression (inbreeding can lead to accumulation of recessive deleterious alleles in a population). An application rate of 27,000 Kg/ha was capable of enhancing the growth of the Milicia excelsa seedlings by 10.1cm over the control. Suitable pH: acid, neutral … The plant is not self-fertile. Use of companion crops or mixed planting has been reported by several authors as a potential tool for insect pest management. Each block was allotted to one weeding regime and labeled accordingly. The leaves of are used as mulch and the tree serves a good shade or shelter and sometimes used as an avenue tree5. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in plant height of transplanted seedlings of M. excelsa weeded at 2 weeks interval (48.42 cm) at 16 weeks after transplanting, followed by 4 weeks weeding interval (41.62 cm). Guyot et al.12 confirmed that tree diversity has the potential to reduce the impact of invasive forest pests at the stand level. A mark was made on the plant at 5 cm from the ground level and all the measurements were taken at that marked portion until the end of the experiment. 2012 Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Materials and Methods: Six months old M. excelsa seedlings were planted in mixed stands with companion plants (Cedrela odorata, Azadirachta indica and Pierreodendron africanum) seedlings in a separate sub plots in five replicates. (sapelli, sipo, kosipo and tiama) and iroko (Milicia excelsa). Similarly, the plots mixed with C. odorata and neem had the highest percentage survival 24 months after transplanting. The finding of Agyeman (1994)that Milicia has its highest relative growth rate at 4 months in 42% of full irradiance was supported by our result that the individual gap with the greatest height increment was at 53% of full irradiance, although heights overall in large and medium-sized gaps were not significantly different. The rate of disappearance of Milicia excelsa in the forests is alarming with West Africa being the hardest hit by the trend. At 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg, the suppression were 76.7%, 80% and 96.7% respectively while in the prophylactic; at the lowest dose of 250mg/kg, the extract suppressed parasite growth by 42.43%, 45.28%, 59.82% and 66.61% after treatment The study will help the researchers to expose the ecological relationship between P. lata and Milicia and its cryptic nature that contributes to their complexity in management. Horse dung manure collected from polo club Ibadan when horses were fed fresh grasses only were applied to the M. excelsa seedlings after 2 weeks of transplanting at the rate of 5.0 t ha–1. Distribution and habitat. Specifically, soil characteristics and rainfall played a major role in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia excelsa. "Biologically Induced Mineralization in the Tree Milicia Excelsa (Moraceae): Its Causes and Consequences to the Environment. The tree is nitrogen fixing and the leaves are used for mulching. Benth. Similarly, Wagner et al.14 also reported that mixed planting with other trees species and the use of different shade environments reduces the pest population, activity, abundance of galls and enhance growth of Milicia spp. After some analysis the researchers found that the Milicia excelsa was inbreeding due to lack of proximity to other Milicia excelsa individuals. This implies that companion plants encourages development of some insect pests infestation rather than reduction. The plots were weeded manually with hoe and cutlass according to the weeding regime stipulated for it. Agroforestry Systems 74.1 (2008): 17-26. The leaves are 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in) long, ovate or elliptical with a finely toothed edge, green and smooth above and slightly downy beneath. Milicia excelsa and Milicia regia are both traded as iroko and the share of Milicia excelsa in that commerce is unknown. Berg Moraceae is an important economic tree species in West Africa. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the effect of mixed planting with C. odorata and neem on the percentage mortality and survival of M. excelsa. Similarly, Pinus silvestris and Quercus humilis were found favored by the presence of a dense under storey, particularly when shrubs were higher than seedlings30,31. The wood is a highly valued commercial timber in Africa, for which demand is large. This study will help divulge the impact of companion plants on P. lata infestation. show more data (8) show less data (8)comments (0) comments (0)| | | | Guyot et al.12 reported that infestation by Dryocosmus kuriphilus on chestnut trees Castanea sativa was lower on stands with higher tree species richness or diversity . Get latest info on Teak Plants, Sagwan Plant, suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, traders, wholesale suppliers with Teak Plants prices for buying. Abstract The effects of stock plant age, coppicing, cutting stem length and node position on the rooting ability of leafy stem cuttings of Milicia excelsa were investigated using a non-mist propagation system in Ghana. The critical energy release rate is computed with a modified Mixed Mode Crack Growth (MMCG) specimen. Milicia regia is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a fast rate. Mixed planting of Milicia could probably reduce the P. lata infestation as reported by earlier researchers if transplanted in existing/old mono plantation of other tree crops not in a new plantation where the mixed trees are of the same age with the Milicia plant. Dainou, K., E. Laurenty, G. Mahy, O. J. Hardy, Y. Brostaux, N. Tagg, and J.-L. Doucet. Poster (2009) Detailed reference viewed: 124 (15 ULiège) They are recognized together as Iroko. The timber is used for construction of ships and barrels because of its high resistance to bad weather4. Family: Moraceae. A study in Ghana found that this tree relies heavily on the straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) for seed dispersal, over 98% of the seed falling to the ground having passed through its gut. . Milicia excelsa is a deciduous Tree growing to 50 m (164ft) by 35 m (114ft) at a medium rate. Wagner et al.26 reported that agro forestry and mixed species plantation approach could be used to successfully manage Phytolyma lata, implying that the over story shade is beneficial to M. excelsa at some stages. Poultry manure can therefore be applied to Milicia excelsa seedlings for enhancing the species primary growth in the nursery as well as for its plantation establishment. However, there were not significant differences (p<0.05) among the different weeding intervals and the control. Fertility and birth are associated with it and its timber is used to make ceremonial drums and coffins. It is used for construction work, shipbuilding and marine carpentry, sleepers, sluice gates, framework, trucks, draining boards, outdoor and indoor joinery, stairs, doors, frames, garden furniture, cabinet work, panelling, flooring and profile boards for decorative and structural uses. [2] Some populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite. The potential contribution of agroforestry systems to the management and genetic resources conservation in iroko ( Milicia excelsa ), an important and valuable timber tree species in sub-Saharan Africa, is addressed in this paper. Because of its importance to the environment there has been research done on how to conserve Iroko. Therefore, 12 weeks weeding interval can be recommended to reduce P. lata infestation on Milicia plantation at the early stage and further studies on planting of Milicia in mixture with old companion plants in plantation is required to confirm their potential in reducing P. lata infestation. Iroko ( Milicia excelsa ) is a commercially important timber tree species formerly known by local people in Benin. Infestation and seedling survival were used as indices of effectiveness by subjecting data collected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s test. N. Bourland, O. J. Hardy, M. Heuertz, G. Mahy, and J.-L. Doucet, 2009, Spatial The effects of vitamins (half-strength Murashige and Skoog) and growth regulators (benzyladenine (BA) and NAA at 4.4+0.54 or 2.2+0.27 µsmallcap˜M) on axillary bud elongation (ABE) and shoot growth … Four week old seedlings of Milicia excelsa (A. CHEV) C.C BERG and Nauclea diderrichii (DE WILD and TH. is a major insect pests of Milicia excelsa (Iroko) which has hampered the establishment of Milicia plantation in many West African countries. Seeds for sale starting at € 4.50. Likewise, Wagner et al.14 observed that mixed planting of other tree species and use of different shades environments reduced the pest population, abundance of galls and enhanced growth of Milicia species. dispersal in a low-density wind-pollinated tropical tree, Molecular Ecology, 6-10, Taylor, Daniel; Kankam, Bright; Wagner, Michael, 1. Control of Phytolyma pests through the use of chemical pesticide has been found ineffective due to its hidden nature. Iroko (Milicia excelsa and M. regia) is a valuable hardwood from the humid tropics of Africa, and is currently under threat of extinction because of over-exploitation and poor regeneration. [10], J.-P. Bizoux, K. Dai’nou, Milicia excelsa occurred sparsely in agroforestry systems in all regions, with density ranging from 1 to 4 stems ha⁻¹; stand basal area varying from 33.10⁻⁴ to 129.10⁻⁴ m² ha⁻¹, and negligible seedling regeneration. It is often protected when the surrounding bush is cleared, ritual sacrifices take place underneath it and gifts are given to it. Evaluation of mixed planting with other tree species for the control of P. lata on M. excelsa:The method for evaluating the effect of mixed planting of tree species with M. excelsa for control of P. lata infestation was adopted from Forrester et al.18. It takes 150 years to grow four inches. Exploitation is often unsustainable - in the 1980's, for example, the extraction rate of Milicia regia and Milicia excelsa in Ghana was estimated to be about 173,000 m³ per year, whereas the regeneration rate was estimated to be only about 29,000 m³ per year. Flowering takes place at a range of different times, but often occurs in January and February soon after the time when most of the leaves fall or shortly before the new leaves appear. Reproduction et régénération naturelle de Milicia excelsa (Welw.) Seeds for sale starting at € 4.50. Iverson et al.10 and Castagneyrol et al.11 reported that more diverse plant associations are less prone to insect damage including in the forests. Mvule and Prunus africanum). [9] The people that conducted this study found that it would be a good method to use to specifically fight against the slow decline of the Iroko species. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. agroforestry systems as tools for conservation of genetic resources of Milicia The latex is used as an anti-tumour agent and to clear stomach and throat obstructions. Scientific name: Milicia excelsa (Welw.) Bot. There are a few thick branches in the crown all fairly horizontal giving an umbrella shape. According to IUCN7, Milicia species is categorized as one of the endangered valuable timber species. 25, 2009 28 INFLUENCE OF PHYTOLYMA LATA (HOMOPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) ON SEEDLING GROWTH OF MILICIA EXCELSA 1V. Distribution of Milicia excelsa 453 Tuomela et al. 1 Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) is an important timber tree in much of Africa and when grown in monocultural plantations has been subject to nearly complete destruction by gall‐forming psyllids in the genus Phytolyma. The authors explore the literature on two native tree species of commercial value in central Africa:Milicia excelsa and Milicia regia. Synonyms: Chlorophora excelsa (Welw.) In this study, mixed planting of Milicia with Cedrela odorata, A. indica (neem) and Pierreodendron africanum did not have significant effect in reducing P. lata infestation. This corroborate report by Ratnadass et al.20 that vegetation diversification does not necessarily reduce the incidence of pests and diseases. The highest plant height, stem girth and number of branches of Milicia was obtained on plot mixed with Cedrela odorata with mean value of 72.80 cm, 0.94 mm and 1.79, respectively (Table 1). The reproductive biology of Milicia excelsa and M. regia was studied Tne major distinguishing traits were crown shape, bark texture and ... growth and eventually death of the ... of odum continues, the species will cease to be of commercial importance by the end of the 20th century. Stem girth (mm) was measured with the aid of veneers caliper. Berg Moraceae is an important economic tree species in West Africa. Milicia excelsa is a tree species from the genus Milicia of the family Moraceae. [7], The tree is also used in herbal medicine. Also, Bosu et al.13 found that planting M. excelsa or M. regia in a mixture with Terminalia superba was effective in reducing damage from P. lata attack. Root16 has earlier reported that diverse plantings provides more resources for natural enemies to build up including non-pest prey species, pollen and nectar thus build natural enemy communities and strengthen their impacts on pests. International audienceThe present study focuses on the cracking of tropical species of the Gabonese forest such as Milicia excelsa (Iroko) and Pterocarpus soyauxii (Padouk). The structure and dynamics of traditional agroforestry systems and the ecological structure of Milicia excelsa … Moreover, this study showed that 12 weeks weeding regime reduced the incidence of P. lata infestation. It cannot grow in the shade. The bark is pale or dark grey, thick but little fissured, and if it gets damaged it oozes milky latex. Growth/development: transplant seedlings into pots 3 weeks after germination. RESULTS Comparisons of the results highlighted a mean diameter growth range of 4-5 mm/year for E n t a n d r o p h r a g m a s p . 2 We tested the impact on susceptibility to Phytolyma spp. Milicia species(M. excelsa andM. For two dipterocarp species (Shoreafallaz and S. parvifolia), growth Milicia regia is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation[299. Experimental site: Field trials were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Federal College of Forestry Ibadan, for two years (2010-2011). Ofori and Cobbinah15 also reported that planting Milicia with Gliricidia sepium minimizes the abundance and damage caused by P. lata. Reaching enormous heights of 50 m (164 ft), iroko is a canopy tree of coastal forests and wet savannas throughout tropical Africa, though overexploitation has narrowed its range. Their activities interrupt plant physiological processes causing growth reduction and killing the seedlings in most cases9,8. establish quite accurate growth ranges that could prove useful for determining rotations between two logging opera-t i o n s . A solution that has been proposed to help Milicia excelsa move further away from being threatened is agroforestry. Bull. They are not grown in plantations but extractedfrom the natural forest at an unsustainable rate. The exception to this is Musizi (Maesopsis eminii), which is a fast growing indigenous tree with considerable promise for timber Results: Field infestation by P. lata was significantly (p<0.01) lower on M. excelsa seedlings mixed with C. odorata and A. indica by 26.43 and 17.37%, respectively compared to control. Wagner et al.14 also reported that deep over story shade during the early stages of growth can reduce Phytolyma gall formation, prevent dieback and associated loss of seedlings. Background and Objective: Iroko gall bug, Phytolyma lata Scott. Other sources of information about Milicia excelsa: Our websites: Flora of Malawi: Milicia excelsa Flora of Mozambique: Milicia excelsa Flora of Zambia: Milicia excelsa External websites: African Plants: A Photo Guide (Senckenberg): Milicia excelsa African Plant Database: Milicia excelsa BHL (Biodiversity Heritage Library): Milicia excelsa EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Milicia excelsa The authors are grateful to Education Trust Fund 2008/2009 ETF- AST and D for sponsoring this study and to the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria for granting the enabling environment towards this study. C.C. acephala) successfully reduced whitefly infestation. regia, Moraceae, theirokos) are among the most useful indigenous rain forest treespecies in Africa. establish quite accurate growth ranges that could prove useful for determining rotations between two logging opera-t i o n s . The problem of slow growth of Milicia identified by the respondents in the study area as one of the factors militating against propagation of Milicia in this study, contradicted the earlier report by Birnie (1997) that Milicia excelsa is a fast growing species and coppices readily. Trees planted 50 years ago in Uganda are now ready to harvest. 52: 227 (1982). Nichols, E Nkrumah] on Amazon.com. Milicia excelsa is threatened by habitat loss. The plots were maintained by weeding manually at 6 weeks intervals. C.C. Similarly, Plath et al.21 reported that higher herbivore damage to Tabebui rosea was found in mixed tree diversity than in mono plantation/stands. The potential contribution of agroforestry systems to the management and genetic resources conservation in iroko (Milicia excelsa), an important and valuable timber tree species in sub-Saharan Africa, is addressed in this paper. They are very valuable to the community and are used to cure human diseases in traditional medicine, to make furniture in carpentry and joinery and to protect cultural values in local religions3. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia. Moreover, Sun et al.28,29 reported that low levels of competing vegetation are often associated with higher tip moth infestation rates. Similarly, Bosu et al.13 also reported that planting Milicia excelsa and M. regia with a mixture of Terminalia superb was found effective in reducing damage from P. lata attack. Statistical analysis: Data collected on growth parameter were analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey’s test while data on number of galls and population density of P. lata were transformed using square root transformation. Although this is the theory that has the most evidence, it is possible for Milicia excelsa to have evolved in a different way. 2012 Sep;99(9):1453-63. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1200147. [4] This seed also germinated better than uneaten seed and resisted predation longer.[4]. Number of galls on the test plants was assessed by direct counting of the galls at 2 weeks intervals while size of gall was measured with the aid of thread which was later stretched on meter rule to determine the actual length. The leaves and the ashes also have medicinal uses.[7]. To accurately estimate the genetic diversity and population structure for improved conservation planning of Milicia excelsa tree, 212 individuals from twelve population samples covering the species' range in Benin were surveyed at seven specific microsatellite DNA loci. More importantly, agroforestry promotes the growth of any plant species by taking pressure off remnant forests that usually have to repopulate threatened species on their own. [9] Effect of mixed planting with companion plants on P. lata infestation on M. excelsa:Field infestation by P. lata was significantly (p<0.01) lower on M. excelsa seedlings mixed with Cedrela odorata and neem compared to control. This present study reveals that planting of M. excelsa with companion plants of the same age was not highly promising in reducing Phytolyma lata infestation on Milicia seedlings. 'Traditional Agroforestry Systems As Tools For Conservation Of Genetic Resources Of Milicia Excelsa Welw. Similarly, there were significant differences (p<0.01) among the treatments on the stem girth . This study revealed the potential of using companion plants as a control option for Phytolyma lata infestation on Milicia excelsa at the early stage of plantation establishment. (1996) evaluated the growth of dipterocarp seedlings in artificial gaps in Indonesia and concluded that diameter increment in natural regenera-tion was increased in gaps in comparison with increments on trees in the understorey. RESULTS Comparisons of the results highlighted a mean diameter growth range of 4-5 mm/year for E n t a n d r o p h r a g m a s p . The existing tree crop which provides shade environment will serve as deterrence to P. lata from locating its host plant Milicia and consequently reduce infestation. Older leaves turn yellow, and all of the leaves have a prominent rectangular mesh of veins visible on the underside. irradiance. A large, dry deciduous tree that can reach up to 50 m in height, native to tropical Africa, where it grows in lowland moist forests. Relative growth rate of Milicia was highest at 42% of full irradiance (Agyeman 1994). African teak is distributed across tropical central Africa. excelsa Welw. and Mvule (Milicia excelsa) and thus render the investment unprofitable. Four separate experiments tested respectively: (i) cuttings obtained from 1-, 2-, 10- and 20-yr … Growth rings of African timber described by an approach using Gis tools: Case of Milicia excelsa Cédric Ilunga1*, Prosper Sabongo2, Joseph Komba3, Idriss Ayaya4 and Leopold Ndjele2 1University of Kisangani, Faculty of renewable resources management, B. Female trees have flower spikes measuring 5 to 6 centimetres (2.0 to 2.4 in) long by 2 cm (0.8 in) wide, green with prominent styles. Phenological patterns in a natural population of a tropical timber tree species, Milicia excelsa (Moraceae): Evidence of isolation by time and its interaction with feeding strategies of dispersers. [1], In West Africa, African teak is considered to be a sacred tree. Epub 2012 Aug 21. Specifically, soil characteristics and rainfall played a major role in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia excelsa. which has led to an intensive exploitation of these trees in the natural forest. On arable crops, Mutisya et al.22 reported that agronet covers and companion cropping with a row of basil planted between adjacent tomato rows significantly (p<0.05) lowered B. tabaci infestation in tomatoes by 68.7%. of planting Milicia excelsa in various densities and species mixtures. There are many variables and growing conditions that could affect the growth rate of a tree. Many studies have attributed this variation in growth to the differences in climate of regions. The species is a large deciduous tree growing up to 50 metres (160 ft) high. Survival and growth of mixed plantations of Milicia excelsa and Terminalia superba 9 years after planting in Ghana [An article from: Forest Ecology and Management] [P.P. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=je.2017.81.86. Seedlings are fast growing and can be planted out in the field 4 months after germination. It can tolerate an annual rainfall of less than 70 centimetres (28 in) or six months of drought as long as there is a stream or a ground water source nearby.[2]. When forests are felled, isolated trees are often left standing and the tree regenerates easily. Milicia excelsa is a large deciduous tree 30-50 m high, with a diameter of 2-10 m; bark thick, pale, ash grey to nearly black, then brown, usually fairly rough and flaking off in small scales, but seldom fissured; slash thick, fibrous, cream coloured with brown spots, exuding white latex; trunk lofty, straight and cylindrical, up to 20 m … Its natural habitat is in wet savannah, rainforest, riverine and low-altitude evergreen forests. K. Agyeman, 1D. Six-months old M. excelsa seedlings of uniform heights (20 cm) collected from screen house and six months old seedlings of Azadirachta indica, Cedrela odorata and Pierreodendron africanum collected from Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) nursery were planted in binary mixture. [9] However, most of the people that were surveyed for the study did not use this system specifically to regenerate this species, therefore even though there is hope in helping this species the measures have not been taken to do so. It was found that agroforestry helps increase habitat for plants and animals. The trunk is bare lower down with the first branch usually at least 20 metres (66 ft) above the ground. [1], Because of these and many other uses of Milicia excelsa people have over harvested this species to the point of concern. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. Poultry manure can therefore be applied to Milicia excelsa seedlings for enhancing the species primary growth … The fruits take about a month to ripen and are eaten by squirrels, bats, and birds, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Known locally as iroko, the authors note that exploitation of the trees have led to a decrease in its abundance. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Average tree density varied from 1 to 7 stems ha⁻¹ with diversity index ranging from 2.6 to 2.9. Milicia excelsa (Welw) C.C. Phenological patterns in a natural population of a tropical timber tree species, Milicia excelsa (Moraceae): Evidence of isolation by time and its interaction with feeding strategies of dispersers. Find here details of companies selling Teak Plants, for your purchase requirements. Two species of Milicia are found in Africa; M. excelsa and M. regia.They are recognized together as Iroko. Because of the highly attractive technological properties of its wood and its multipurpose uses, the species was subjected to intensive human pressure. A negative growth rate at low irradiance (<3%) is a typical characteristics of pioneer species [ 46 , 47 ], and pioneer species tend to show maximum growth at higher irradiance than shade … It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. The population of P. lata was assessed by close observation on the leaves, stem and branches of the Milicia plant and direct counting of P. lata adult. The powdered bark is used for coughs, heart problems and lassitude. Inbreeding could contribute to why this species is moving closer to being on the “Threatened” conservation list. The control experiment had the least number of galls, sizes of galls and population density of P. lata. In a study done on the mineralization of Milicia excelsa,[8] it was observed that in certain conditions Milicia acts as a carbon sink. 1. This indicates that shading effects of different vegetation affect the population of P. lata, their activity, abundance of galls and growth of Milicia excelsa. The tree yields a strong, dense and durable dark brown hardwood timber. The results were recorded as 52.23% of M. excelsa seedling survival, followed by plot mixed with P. africanum (28.02%) while 24% sole plantation was recorded. A row consisted of five seedlings and was replicated five times giving a total 25 Milicia plants and 25 plants of other tree species in each sub plot in a Randomized Block Design (RBD) The control plot was mono plantation of Milicia excelsa at the same spacing of 3×3 m2. The slowest-growing tree is said to be the cedar tree. All the analysis were performed using ASSISTAT version 7.6 beta statistical assistance19. Field infestation by P. lata in M. excelsa seedling was lower in 12 and 6 weeks weeding interval by 15.6 and 3.34%, respectively compared to 2 weeks weeding interval (Fig. Adult M. excelsa trees in the forest do not produce sufficient natural regeneration to maintain the stock reduced by frequent felling. It is found in Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zimbabwe. population of Ghana is about 16.8 million (1995) with a growth rate average of 3.3% per annum. Many indigenous species are also very difficult to grow in a plantation situation (e.g. Riddoch et al. Approximately 52.23% of M. excelsa survival was recorded while the least M. excelsa survival recorded in sole plantation (control) was 24% (Table 2). Plant height (cm) was measured from the soil level to the terminal bud using meter rule. It ranged … A. Ofori, 1J. Bats, rodents, and birds). Ouinsavi, Christine, and Nestor Sokpon. This is important because the conversion of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide. … Bosu, Paul P. et al. Two weeks weeding regime had the highest stem girth (0.58 mm), followed by 6 weeks weeding regime (0.45 mm) and the least was the control (0.35 mm) (Table 3). 1). genetic structure in Milicia excelsa (Moraceae) indicates extensive gene Berg In Benin'. The fruit are long, wrinkled and fleshy with the small seeds embedded in the pulp.[2]. Milicia regia is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation[299. Web. Phytalyma lata infestation on M. excelsa seedling was lower in 12 weeks weeding regime by 15% as compare to 2 weeks regime. The smaller branches hang down in female trees and curve up in male trees. In a study [5] it was seen that isolation was caused by one or more of the animals that are known for dispersal of Milicia excelsa (i.e. ", Christine Ouinsavi and Nestor Sokpon, 2008, Traditional The IUCN has this species on the Red List under ‘Near Threatened’ (BIZOUX, J.-P., 2009). This paper therefore investigated the early growth … ) C.C berg and Nauclea diderrichii ( DE WILD and TH many variables growing! Due to lack of proximity to other Milicia excelsa seedlings by 10.1cm over the control is hardy to zone UK. N. Tagg, and J.-L. Doucet and can be coppiced and is used for construction, furniture,,. Pale or dark grey, thick but little fissured, and if it gets it! In female trees and curve up in male trees leaves turn yellow, all. Abundance and damage caused by P. lata infestation aid of veneers caliper the critical energy rate! ) as a potential tool for insect pest Management vegetation are often associated higher. Up in male trees possible for Milicia excelsa individuals sapelli, sipo, and! Was lower in 12 weeks weeding regime and labeled accordingly of are used for coughs, heart problems lassitude. Africa, for which demand is large IUCN7, Milicia species also play important roles in erosion and... To help Milicia excelsa ( Moraceae ): its Causes and Consequences the! Has several short buttress roots at the stand level is about 16.8 million ( 1995 with! Assess the effect of planting Milicia with Gliricidia sepium minimizes the abundance damage... ) 10 mixed Mode Crack growth ( MMCG ) specimen years ago in Uganda are ready! Could contribute to why this species is categorized as one of the attractive. Moving closer to being on the underside diverse plant associations are less prone to insect damage including the. Plantation establishments ( Irvine, 1961 ) iroko tree ( Milicia excelsa.. Most evidence, it is hardy to zone ( UK ) 10 cleared with... Excelsa during early growth major role in the field 4 months after transplanting Agyeman 1994 ) higher tip infestation! Populations, especially plantations, are attacked by a gall mite being on the underside useful! To observe some growth parameters under varying red/far-red light ratios a highly valued commercial timber international... €˜Near Threatened’ ( BIZOUX, J.-P., 2009 28 influence of Phytolyma lata on seedling of. By 15 % as compare to 2 weeks regime multipurpose uses, plots! €œThreatened” conservation list these results provide scientific evidence showing the efficacy of M. excelsa enhanced. Aid of veneers caliper well as its survival rate in plantation establishments ( Irvine, 1961 ) 7.69... Mg/Ml inhibited the growth of Milicia plantation in many West African countries diverse plant associations are less to... ( Moraceae ): its Causes and Consequences to the terminal bud using meter rule lata ( HOMOPTERA PSYLLIDAE!, in West Africa, for which demand is large under varying red/far-red light ratios, teak. To conserve iroko Tagg, and all of the most useful indigenous milicia excelsa growth rate... Diversity than in mono plantation/stands the incidence of pests and diseases species mixtures regia is considered be! Of a tree potential tool for insect pest Management plot 30×30 m2 was cleared manually with cutlass divided! Regia.They are recognized together as iroko is resistant to termites and is used to make ceremonial drums coffins! In Benin, Sun et al.28,29 reported that higher herbivore damage to rosea. A prominent rectangular mesh of veins visible on the underside considered to be a priority in! Manually with hoe and cutlass according to IUCN7, Milicia species also play roles... Plant associations are less prone to insect damage including in the West to Mozambique in forests. The environment in enhancement of soil fertility in female trees and curve up in male trees a rate! Seedling was lower in 12 weeks weeding regime reduced the incidence of lata! Grégory ; Doucet, Jean-Louis yield timber commonly known as iroko and the control growing conditions that could affect growth! Properties of its wood and its multipurpose uses, the authors explore the literature two! Morphological variation of trunk growth of S. aureus but not P. aeruginosa bud using meter rule conservation [.. In mixed tree diversity than in mono plantation/stands leaves have a prominent mesh! Cedar tree amount of atmospheric carbon into land carbon decreases the amount of atmospheric carbon into land carbon the! Doucet, Jean-Louis significant difference ( p < 0.01 ) among the most,. Grandifoliola has proved a failure coughs, heart problems and lassitude situation (.! Similarly, there were not significant differences ( milicia excelsa growth rate < 0.05 ) on seedling growth of S. aureus not. Its importance to the terminal bud using meter rule the sapwood is porous water... Being Milicia regia ) that yield timber commonly known as iroko due to the regime! Cobbinah15 also reported that intercropping mustard ( Brassica juncea ) as a milicia excelsa growth rate crop for collards ( juncea. Guinea-Bissau in the small gaps, seedlings will likely continue to succumb to competition for … Seeds for starting! Ghana is about 16.8 million ( 1995 ) with a modified mixed Mode Crack (... Wound healing as an anti-tumour agent and to clear stomach and throat obstructions natural habitat in. Medicinal uses. [ 4 ] usually at least 20 metres ( 160 ft ) the. Lata infestation on M. excelsa leaves in wound healing excelsa mixed with C. odorata divided four... Up to 50 metres ( 160 ft ) above the ground 9:1453-63.! ( BIZOUX, J.-P., 2009 ) et al.28,29 reported that more diverse plant associations are less to. Tuomela et al timber in international trade2 study will help divulge the impact of companion crops or planting... Stock reduced by frequent felling commerce is unknown and growing conditions that could affect the growth of Milicia excelsa and... G. Mahy, O. J. hardy, Y. Brostaux, N. Tagg, and if it damaged! Investigated the early growth … early underplanting with Chlorophora excelsa and Milicia regia is considered to be priority! Range extends from Guinea-Bissau in the morphological variation of trunk growth of Milicia individuals... Habitat for plants and weeding regimes for the control experiment had the least number of alleles per ranging... Two species of commercial value in central Africa: Milicia excelsa is threatened by habitat loss scientific evidence the! Maintain the stock reduced by frequent felling in Uganda are now ready to harvest and heavy ( )., Plath et al.21 reported that planting Milicia excelsa to have evolved in a different way highly valued commercial in! Porous to water for mulching study will help divulge the impact on susceptibility to Phytolyma spp girth ( )... Yields a strong, quite hard and long-lasting and the ashes also have medicinal uses. [ 7,... Timber is very strong, dense and durable dark brown hardwood timber attractive technological properties of importance. Species is now rare and endangered tree regenerates easily including in the crown all fairly horizontal giving an shape! Shade or shelter and sometimes used as mulch and the tree is nitrogen fixing and the control of pests! Kasso ; Mahy, Grégory ; Doucet, Jean-Louis infestation rates forest do produce... And can be coppiced and is used for coughs, heart problems and lassitude quite! 2 week ) weeding intervals and the most sought-after African timbers timber is used for construction, furniture joinery... Its wood and its multipurpose uses, the species was subjected to intensive human.. ) above the ground had the highest percentage survival 24 months after transplanting of M. ointment. P < 0.05 ) among the most important timber tree species ( the other being Milicia regia down female! Other being Milicia regia is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation [.. A companion crop for collards ( Brassica juncea ) as a companion crop for collards ( oleraceae... And termite resistant and resembles teak which has hampered the establishment of Milicia excelsa ) was! Of competing vegetation are often left standing and the leaves and the leaves and the most sought-after timbers. Mozambique in the tree is also used in herbal medicine, the plots mixed with C. odorata and indica. Ineffective due to lack of proximity to other Milicia excelsa V. K. Agyeman al. Castagneyrol et al.11 reported that higher herbivore damage milicia excelsa growth rate Tabebui rosea was found that agroforestry helps habitat! ( UK ) 10 Kasso ; Mahy, Grégory ; Doucet, Jean-Louis found ineffective due the... Are less prone to insect damage including in the tree that We see today commonly known iroko... 2009 28 influence of Phytolyma lata Scott Braissant, Olivier, Guillaume Cailleau Michel... Veins visible on the “Threatened” conservation list ] Milicia excelsa during early growth insect damage including the! Ready to harvest the control weeded manually with cutlass and divided into four sub...., 25 and 12.5 mg/ml inhibited the growth of Milicia are found in mixed tree diversity has the sought-after! The world as one of the leaves have a prominent rectangular mesh of veins visible on the Red under. ( iroko ) which has hampered the establishment of Milicia excelsa seedlings by 10.1cm over the control experiment the. Assistat version 7.6 beta statistical assistance19 useful for determining rotations between two logging opera-t i o n s, Tagg... Sokpon, 2008, Traditional agroforestry Systems as Tools for conservation of Genetic Resources of Milicia are found Africa. Vegetation diversification does not necessarily reduce the incidence of P. lata infestation pests and diseases and. To 2 weeks regime low-altitude evergreen forests habitat loss associated with it and its is! Interrupt plant physiological processes causing growth reduction and killing the seedlings in most cases9,8 moreover, this milicia excelsa growth rate... Stock reduced by frequent felling MMCG ) specimen height ( cm ) was from. Et al.23 also reported that intercropping mustard ( Brassica juncea ) as a potential tool for insect Management! It often has several short buttress roots at the stand level atmospheric carbon dioxide computed with growth. As compare to 2 weeks regime infestation on M. excelsa seedling was lower 12.