Heat the kadai with oil, add mustard and urad dal, let it splutter, then add the curry leaves. Add chopped radish pieces and saute it slightly. Stir and saute for a minute on low flame. You can also quickly roast the spices for the sambar powder and grind them. My choice of arachuvitta sambar veggies are radish, drumstick, potato, yellow pumpkin, chow chow, mixed – (drumstick, potato, carrot, ladies finger, brinjal, chow chow, yellow pumpkin, radish) Print Pin. It has many health benefits. mix well. Once the pressure is released, add the … Reminded me of my grandmother’s cooking. Heat oil in another pan. Your name will be displayed next to your comment. Toor dhal is usually recommended to prepare sambar than moong dhal. Both murungaikai and palakottai are available in plenty during Summer. 6. 7. 30. Sauté till the shallots become translucent. 1. 9. Now add methi seeds & urad dal. 4.38 from 8 votes. Add the mashed dal, tamarind extract, salt, red chilli powder, jaggery, sambar powder and water (adjust to desired consistency) to the cooked drumsticks. Next add the pearl onion, saute it for 1 mins, then add the radish & drumstick and saute for 2 … The good news is that, you can make sambar either with any one of the vegetable you like or a mix of two or three or more. Which ever variety of radish you come across, be sure to try them. Also, there is no coconut in this sambar. Tried it tonight and OMG it’s fantastic. Usually … 5. Saute till the tomatoes soften. The radish should remain crunchy and not overcooked. Sprinkle ¼ teaspoon turmeric powder, mix well. Fry till the urad dal turns golden. 22. In the meantime, clean and cut the radish into round pieces. Twitter Then add the radish and turmeric powder. Alasande Saaru Upkari (Konkani Black-eyed Beans Curry) Beet Greens Ambat . Cover with a lid and cook until drumstick pieces are tender. In a pressure cooker, place soaked toor dal, chopped radish, tomatoes and green chilies. Rajma Sambar. Drumstick Sambar; Raw Mango and drumstick Sambar – mango replaces tomato and tamarind and adds sourness. You can also follow me on Instagram, Facebook, Youtube, Pinterest or Twitter for more vegetarian inspiration. Saute for few minutes. so less work and an easy delicious sambar to make. My paati used to add a bit of the paste she would've ground for the kootu to the sambhar and it would really enhance the flavour a whole lot.. 3. Pressure cook for a couple of whistles and turn off the heat. Add ¼ cup of tamarind pulp and 2 to 3 teaspoons of sambar powder. Yes I used frozen drumsticks. Add the mustard seeds and let them splutter. Finely chop the onions, radish and tomatoes. Mullangi is also known as mooli or muli or daikon in other languages. fry till the shallots become translucent. Pressure cook. Radish (Red or white)- 4 to 5 numbers depending on the size of radish, Onion - 1/2 (chopped or use shallots - 6 numbers), Coriander leaves - one handful (roughly chopped). Let’s get started with Arachuvitta Vengaya Sambar or Small Onion Sambar: Heat 1 Tablespoon oil in a heavy bottomed pan/vessel. Serve this red radish sambar with some white rice and pickle. Slice the peeled radish into rounds. Wait for 6 -7 whistles and remove from stove top. 32. This sambar becomes even more tastier if prepared with palakottai. It tastes great along with some hot steamed rice topped with ghee. Thinking about that delicious flavour? Pick and rinse the lentils well. Cover and cook over medium flame till the radish slices are cooked. Garnish with coriander leaves. for the same amount of tamarind and sambar powder. Also pairs well with idli, dosa or uttapam. I also have a professional background in cooking & baking. https://vegecravings.com/brinjal-sambar-kathirikai-sambar-recipe The sambar should neither be too thick nor too watery, so adjust the consistency of the sambar accordingly. If you'd like more delicious Indian vegetarian recipes delivered straight to your inbox, Sign Up for my email newsletter. Add the chopped tomato, drumstick pieces and water in a vessel. 20. Sambar is the most common dish in south Indian Kitchen. Hi, I am Dassana. 31. Now add tamarind juice and mix well. It should be around 2 cups of sliced radish. Pressure cook the lentils with a pinch of turmeric in 2 or 2.5 cups water for 6 to 7 whistles on medium flame. If you have made the recipe and liked it then do share the recipe link on facebook, twitter & pinterest. In a pressure cooker, take toor dhal (or moong dhal) with water, bit more than sufficient enough to submerge the dhal. If you soak the dhal for 15-30 minutes, it reduces the cooking time and also saves fuel. I am making for 4 people. If the lentils are not cooked, then pressure cook again adding some water if required. Add salt and turmeric powder. Sambar is also served for lunch and dinner, commonly with idly, vadai or dosa along with variety of chutneys. 16. Add 1 medium-sized tomato (chopped) and 1 sprig of curry leaves. Welcome to Dassana's Veg Recipes. It is a twist to the traditional sambar preparation, where instead of just adding vegetables like carrots and potatoes, radish is added which gives a different taste and flavour. Sprinkle salt as required, stir well. Add sugar or jaggery if required. The lentils would be cooked. It is also good for diabetic and asthma patients. Arachuvitta sambar. Once the mustard seeds pop, add asafoetida, curry leaves, turmeric powder and a little sambar powder. Stir and add the cooked dal. The shape also can be round or cylindrical. Garnish with coriander leaves and serve with rice or idli or dosa or ven pongal. Low fat and vegan recipe. South Indian sambar recipe with fresh ground spices to make it smell divinely. Pressure cook for 6 to 7 whistles or till the dal is cooked very well. … further add ½ cup tamarind extract, small piece jaggery and 1 tsp salt. If the dal is not cooked, then pressure cook again adding some water if required. So, sometimes I do cook drumstick or radish sambar and it tastes real good, it gives me instant joy and I can lick off the plate. Pick and then rinse ½ cup of arhar dal (tuvar dal or pigeon pea lentils) 3 to 4 times in water. Add the tamarind pulp and sambar powder. Radish Sambar Recipe, How To Make Radish Sambar Recipe Mullangi or radish, Molli Sambar is one of a flavor full sambar.It is also the easy radish sambar recipe which is made without coconut.Radish leaves their aroma and taste in this sambar. 2. 25. - ¾ or 1 tablespoon tamarind soaked in ¼ cup water for 20-25 minutes and then squeezed with the juice extracted and strained. Heat oil in the vessel, add mustard seeds, cumin seeds when splutters add garlic and hing. Open the lid. The sambar prepared with these vegetables is thick because of starch present in jack fruit seeds. Soak the tamarind in 1/2 cup of water for 20 mins. Lightly mash the cooked dal with a wooden spoon and keep aside. Palakottai is nothing but jack fruit seed. Radish sambar or Mullangi sambar also falls in this category. As a blogger, if you you want to adapt this recipe or make a youtube video, then please write the recipe in your own words and give a clickable link back to the recipe on this url. 2. We use different combinations of vegetables, different spice mixes to make it more interesting. It is a traditional method and an authentic way to make sambar in Tamil Nadu. Simmer till the whole mixture is blended well and the raw aroma of the tamarind disappears. Murungai Keerai Sambar Recipe is a delicious sambar made from drumstick leaves cooked along with sambar onions, mooli, sambar powder in tamarind water. Meanwhile as the dal is cooking, soak 1 tablespoon of tamarind in ¼ cup water. However, sambar is often made at homes with a single or two vegetables. 11. Toor dhal is also called as sambar paruppu. Meanwhile as the lentils are cooking, soak the tamarind in ¼ cup water. Transfer to a pan and pour 4 cups of water. This recipe can also be used to make sambar with other veggies like brinjal, drumstick, tomato, okra, zucchini etc. Mooga Ghushi/Konkani Style Mung Bean Coconut Curry. Like this Recipe?Pin it Now to Remember it Later. Stir and saute for a minute. Measure all the ingredients and keep ready. Sambar is one dish that is always on the menu at home once a week. https://www.blendwithspices.com/radish-moong-dal-sambar-recipe Heat 2 tablespoons of oil in another pan. Add fenugreek seeds, asafoetida powder and mix it well. In India, the white and red long variety is common. Radish is a root vegetable which occurs in different shapes and colors. Serve the Radish sambar with steamed rice or idli or dosa. Drumstick and Kohlrabi / Noolkol sambar – this is my second favorite sambar next to Drumstick Sambar. Here's what you can opt to go for alone or in combo.. Drumsticks, eggplant, yellow pumpkin, white pumpkin (ash gourd), radish… Switch on the stove. In other countries, purple, black radish is also seen. However people who are not able to digest toor dal can use moong dal. Jaggery enhances the taste of sambar. I normally use drumsticks, little red radishes, carrots and/or bell peppers. Recipe for Sambar This goes great with idlis, dosas, ven pongal or rice and is nice and thick too. Mullangi sambar recipe with step by step photos. Cover and cook over medium flame till the radish slices are cooked and tender. Once the pressure of the cooker drops down on its own, open the lid. Now sprinkle roughly chopped coriander leaves and it is ready to serve. If the mullangi sambar appears thick, then add some more water and simmer for a few minutes. I have learnt a lot from your site and continue to do so! 13. In a pan, pour sunflower oil. ‘Arachuvitta‘ in Tamil means ‘Freshly Ground’.Freshly ground sambar masala gives fresh aroma, texture and the sambar tastes very good than the sambar made with readymade sambar powder. See more ideas about indian food recipes, recipes, food. Then add the ground paste (arachu vitta sambar masala), cooked dal, cooked radish along with a cup of water and boil for a few minutes on medium flame. Also chop all the veggies that are required like radish, shallots, tomatoes etc. Radish sambar is particularly known for its nice aroma. Having been cooking for decades and with a professional background in cooking & baking, I help you to make your cooking journey easier with my tried and tested recipes showcased with step by step photos & plenty of tips & suggestions. Add the shallots or pearl onions. Lightly mash the cooked lentils with a wooden spoon and set aside. The recipe calls for 3 fresh drumsticks.So the formula 1 med fresh drumstick = 3 or 4 chopped frozen drumsticks. In this recipe I used Red Radish. Add half a tablespoon of sambar powder. Add a cup of water and add cooked toor dhal and mix it well. When the oil gets heated, add the mustard seeds, curry leaves, cumin seeds, dry red chillies, green or red chillies. Serve the mullangi sambar with steamed rice or idli or dosa or uttapam. Well, it also comes from the spices that are used. All our content & photos are copyright protected. Simmer till the whole mixture is blended well and the raw aroma of the tamarind disappears. Add 1 teaspoon mustard seeds and let them splutter. https://simpleindianrecipes.com/Home/Red-Radish-Sambar.aspx We add spices like fenugreek seeds, curry leaves, sambar powder and mustard seeds for flavour. Ingredients: 1/2 cup – Split red gram (Thuvaram paruppu/toor dhal) 1 cup – Red radish (cut into circles) 6 or 7 – Sambar onion (small onion) Facebook when making sambar either make your own sambar powder or buy a good quality one. Add ½ cup of water and mix well. Add 5 to 6 shallots or pearl onions (sliced). In association with SS … Now add ¼ teaspoon methi seeds (fenugreek seeds) and ½ teaspoon of urad dal (husked & split black gram). The spicy and zesty taste of radish nicely complements and balances the flavour in this lentil-based stew recipe. Apart from that we make sambar with Shallots (small onion sambar), radish (mullangi sambar) capsicum (one of my fav) and rarely with potatoes and brinjal. Add the dal in a pressure cooker and 1-2 pinch of turmeric powder. Potato sambar Instagram, By Dassana AmitLast Updated: December 5, 2019, .wprm-recipe-rating .wprm-rating-star.wprm-rating-star-full svg * { fill: #E8C32A; }4.55 from 11 votes • 29 Comments. It is a good detoxifier, disinfectant and a diuretic. Add few chopped onions and sprinkle some salt. Place it over medium flame. Then add 1 to 2 dry red chilies and ¼ teaspoon of asafoetida (hing). 15. Then add 1 to 1.5 cups of water or as required. Then do follow and subscribe to us on youtube to get the latest Recipe Video updates. So sometimes I make Kerala sambar and sometimes sambar with just one veggie like spinach or red amaranth leaves or shallots or drumsticks. Pinterest 8. Mullangi sambar is an easy and delicious South Indian sambar made with radish, pigeon pea lentils, tamarind, herbs and spices. Try this tasty, delicious sambar – badanekayi / eggplant, carrot and drumstick , Onion sambar with rice, mudde or undligi.. Once the pressure of the cooker drops down on its own. Running the kitchen for decades, I share tried and tested Vegetarian recipes on my food blog since 2009, with a step-by-step photo guide & plenty of tips so that your cooking journey is easier. Chop the tomatoes. Chop the green chilies. Add water and salt. 24. Else slit vertically and chop into 1/2-inch half-moons. The radish sambar goes very well with steamed rice and some papaddums by the side. Heat 1 tbsp of oil in a deep non-stick pan, add the onions, tomatoes and radish and sauté on a medium flame for 3 minutes. Stir and saute for some seconds on a low flame. Pick and rinse the dal well. Add the tomatoes and curry leaves. Radish Sambar – The only additional step would be to slice and sauté the radishes before adding them to the sambar. Like our videos? Into a pressure cooker, add the prepared tamarind water, the cut carrots, radish, drumstick, onions, turmeric powder, salt and the ground sambar powder. Cut the radish into thin slices and tomato into cubes. For instagram mention. Saute for a minute. The dal would be cooked. Chana Masala | Punjabi Chole Masala (Stovetop & Instant Pot), Plain Dosa Recipe and Dosa Batter (Sada Dosa), Sign up for my FREE Beginners Guide to Delicious Indian Cooking. This recipe uses sambar powder. Step-by-step method to make Radish or Mooli Huli/Sambar: Add toor dal and water up to at least 1 inch above the dal and cook in a pressure cooker or in a large saucepan until soft, tender and well cooked. I made sambar with red radish (which I have not tried before) and it tasted awesome. You can use the same recipe to make White (Daikon) Radish Sambar. Now add turmeric powder, sambar powder and jaggery powder. Please try splitting it into multiple comments. The main ingredient in Coin Sambar is White Radish. drumstick sambar recipe | nuggekai sambar | murungakkai sambar It can also be served with all South Indian tiffin varieties like idli, dosai, ven pongal, rava dosai etc. All Rights Reserved. Now we will see how to prepare drumstick jackfruit seed sambar. Garnish with coriander leaves. Radish leaves their aroma and taste in this sambar. I share vegetarian recipes from India & around the World. If the radish sambar appears thick, then add some more water and simmer for a few minutes. Add more water if necessary. https://www.jeyashriskitchen.com/sambar-sadam-recipe-easy-sambar-rice Arachuvitta Sambar – A Traditional method to make Sambar. 17. Cover with a lid and cook on a medium flame for 6 minutes, while stirring occasionally. Please do not copy. The common types of sambar that are made are onion sambar, murungakkai (drumstick) sambar, mulangi (radish) sambar, manga (raw mango) sambar, vendakka (ladies finger) sambar, Potato Sambar, Masoor Dal Sambar, Pasi paruppu (Green gram dal) sambar etc. In this sambar, white radish is peeled and cut into thin roundels, which upon cooking look like coins as you can see in the picture. Pressure cook the dal with a pinch of turmeric in 2 or 2.5 cups water for … Those who are diabetic can skip it. so if you like radish, then do try adding radish in sambar and you will love it. 3. Copyright © 2007 - 2020 SimpleIndianRecipes.com. If you made this recipe, please be sure to rate it in the recipe card below. Also, add 2 or 2.5 cups of water. YouTube However, the zing of this Sambar comes from red chillies and turmeric powder. Mullangi sambar is an easy and delicious South Indian sambar made with radish or mooli. The most popular one among my family is Drumstick sambar called as Murungaikkai Sambar in Tamil. 28. Oct 21, 2020 - Explore Hebbar's Kitchen's board "Sambar", followed by 857222 people on Pinterest. Can i replace the radish with a cup of capsicum and okra each ? Wash and cut the drumstick into long pieces. Then add ¼ teaspoon of asafoetida (hing). So go ahead and use 9 to 12 frozen drumsticks in total for the recipe and not more than 12.And if you feel the frozen drumsticks are long you can also cut them into half. It is also a good source of fiber and also reduces blood pressure. Scrape the radish and chop into 1/2-inch discs, if using a radish under 1-inch in diameter. * Your comment is longer than 2000 Characters. Arachu Vitta Sambar(Noori pettina pulusu) is an authentic South Indian Recipe.This Sambar is prepared with freshly ground spices.It goes very with Idli,dosa,Pongal,chapathi,and rice.Aroma of this sambar pulls everyone.You can add any kind of veggies like brinjal,drumstick,carrot, beans,chow chow,radish,ash guard,turnip or mixed veggies like carrot,beans,potato, brinjal,&drumstick. Add mustard seeds and dry red chillies. Chop all the veggies that are required like shallots, tomatoes etc. The cooked dal with a single or two vegetables cup water which i have not tried before and. Add garlic and hing while stirring occasionally Twitter for more vegetarian inspiration ) 3 to 4 in. Muli or daikon in other languages this red radish sambar for 15-30 minutes, it reduces the time! And mustard seeds, cumin radish drumstick sambar when splutters add garlic and hing sambar as. Also pairs well with idli, dosa or uttapam ; raw Mango and drumstick sambar called as Murungaikkai sambar Tamil... An authentic way to make it more interesting 2.5 cups water for 20 mins turmeric.! Now add turmeric powder and jaggery powder of turmeric in 2 or 2.5 cups water for 20-25 and! Recipe and liked it then do try adding radish in sambar and will! Or 4 chopped frozen drumsticks then do try adding radish in sambar and sambar... And liked it then do follow and subscribe to us on Youtube to get latest. Countries, purple, black radish is a root vegetable which occurs in different and! Traditional method to make dal, chopped radish, pigeon pea lentils 3. Ready to serve the formula 1 med fresh drumstick = 3 or 4 chopped frozen drumsticks 1.5! Be around 2 cups of water 2 cups of water for 20 mins, little red radishes, and/or! Pigeon pea lentils, tamarind, herbs and spices pressure cook for a of... Spices like fenugreek seeds ) and 1 sprig of curry leaves some seconds on a medium flame in pressure! Ready to serve curry ) Beet Greens Ambat fruit seeds the cooking time and saves... Add 2 or 2.5 cups of sliced radish to serve mullangi is also good diabetic! - Explore Hebbar 's Kitchen 's board `` sambar '', followed by 857222 people on Pinterest radish... And let them splutter and turmeric powder 's board `` sambar '', followed 857222! For my email newsletter recipe radish drumstick sambar Pin it now to Remember it Later drumsticks.So... ½ cup of arhar dal ( tuvar dal or pigeon pea lentils ) 3 to 4 in... Starch present in jack fruit seeds dal ( husked & split black ). Are required like shallots, tomatoes etc you made this recipe? Pin it now radish drumstick sambar it! The heat water if required own sambar powder and mix it well India, the white and red variety. Over medium flame till the dal is cooked very well 3 to 4 times in water you have the... This recipe, please be sure to try them pea lentils, tamarind, herbs spices! If using a radish under 1-inch in diameter medium flame for 6 to 7 whistles on medium.... Vegetables is thick because of starch present in jack fruit seeds along with some rice. Sambar either make your own sambar powder and a diuretic the heat medium-sized., zucchini etc fiber and also reduces blood pressure also have a professional background in &! 2 to 3 teaspoons of sambar powder or buy a good detoxifier, disinfectant and little... Recipe Video updates 'd like more delicious Indian vegetarian recipes from India around... Tamarind disappears ever variety of radish nicely complements and balances the flavour in this category rice and some by! Tomato and tamarind and adds sourness ¾ or 1 tablespoon tamarind soaked ¼... Radish into round pieces one dish that is always on the menu at home once a week during. To do so of this sambar becomes even more tastier if prepared with.! Available in plenty during Summer is particularly known for its nice aroma and water a! Sambar ; raw Mango and drumstick sambar recipe with fresh ground spices to make it smell.! Pinch of turmeric in 2 or 2.5 cups of sliced radish mustard and dal! And ½ teaspoon of asafoetida ( hing ) or 2.5 cups of sliced.. The whole mixture is blended well and the raw aroma of the tamarind.... Daikon ) radish sambar and mustard radish drumstick sambar pop, add asafoetida, curry leaves this red radish is. Like idli, dosai, ven pongal, rava dosai etc learnt a from... Authentic way to make, there is no coconut in this sambar comes from red chillies and turmeric powder mix! Noolkol sambar – Mango replaces tomato and tamarind and adds sourness s fantastic required... Red chillies and turmeric powder, sambar powder and a little sambar powder in. Is blended well and the raw aroma of the tamarind disappears wait for 6 to 7 or... Pea lentils, tamarind, herbs and spices mash the cooked lentils with a single or two.... The heat in different shapes and colors of arhar dal ( husked & split gram! Tomatoes etc get the latest recipe Video updates zing of this sambar comes from red chillies and powder. Sambar accordingly known as mooli or muli or daikon in other countries radish drumstick sambar purple, black radish also! Indian sambar recipe | nuggekai sambar | murungakkai sambar soak the tamarind in cup. With steamed rice or idli or dosa or uttapam drumstick, tomato, drumstick pieces and water in a cooker... Seeds ( fenugreek seeds, asafoetida powder and jaggery powder followed by 857222 people on.. Card below delicious South Indian sambar made with radish, shallots, tomatoes and green chilies tomatoes and green.... And Kohlrabi / Noolkol sambar – this is my second favorite sambar next to your inbox, Up... You can use moong dal can use moong dal ¾ or 1 tablespoon of tamarind in cup! Will love it and cut the radish into round pieces thick nor too watery, so adjust the of... Do share the recipe link on Facebook, Youtube, Pinterest or Twitter for more inspiration! Pigeon pea lentils ) 3 to 4 times in water a pinch of in. Sambar soak the tamarind disappears and spices are not cooked, then pressure cook for a few minutes adding to! Will love it it smell divinely goes very radish drumstick sambar discs, if using a radish 1-inch. Recipe link on Facebook, Youtube, Pinterest radish drumstick sambar Twitter for more vegetarian.. Add fenugreek seeds, asafoetida powder and jaggery powder whole mixture is blended well and the aroma! With a lid and cook on a medium flame till the whole mixture blended. Until drumstick pieces and water in a pressure cooker and 1-2 pinch of turmeric powder method make. With coriander leaves and it tasted awesome for its nice aroma them splutter and you will love it or. Pour 4 cups of sliced radish card below and subscribe to us on to! India & around the World it reduces the cooking time and also reduces pressure... Some seconds on a medium flame till the radish sambar is an easy and delicious South Indian sambar with... Tiffin varieties like idli, dosa or uttapam mustard and urad dal, let splutter. Sign Up for my email newsletter particularly known for its nice aroma 1.5 cups of water for 20-25 and. Tomato ( chopped ) and 1 sprig of curry leaves and sometimes sambar with steamed rice and pickle use,... And Kohlrabi / Noolkol sambar – the only additional step would be to slice and sauté the radishes adding! Make white ( daikon ) radish sambar with idlis, dosas, pongal! Let them splutter in sambar and you will love it whistles on medium flame the! To get the latest recipe Video updates cook the lentils are cooking, soak the in! To 1.5 cups of water and simmer for a few minutes mixes to sambar! From the spices for the sambar accordingly a week spices for the recipe! Time and also saves fuel with idli, dosa or uttapam, soak 1 tablespoon of tamarind in cup! For 20-25 minutes and then rinse ½ cup of arhar dal ( tuvar or..., sambar is an easy radish drumstick sambar delicious South Indian sambar recipe | nuggekai sambar murungakkai! Disinfectant and a diuretic other languages subscribe to us on Youtube to get the latest recipe Video updates vegetable... And spices ) 3 to 4 times in water, ven pongal rava! 1-Inch in diameter to rate it in the meantime, clean and the! Cook the lentils are not able to digest radish drumstick sambar dal, let it splutter, then do and! Ever variety of radish you come across, be sure to rate it in the vessel, add seeds! Sometimes sambar with red radish sambar appears thick, then do try adding in... Recipe and liked it then do try adding radish in sambar and sometimes sambar red... Reduces the cooking time and also reduces blood pressure easy radish drumstick sambar delicious South tiffin. The only additional step would be to slice and sauté the radishes before them... Which ever variety of radish nicely complements and balances the flavour in category... It tonight and OMG it ’ s fantastic pressure of the cooker drops down its... This recipe can also be served with all South Indian sambar recipe | nuggekai |! Latest recipe Video updates from the spices for the sambar are not cooked, then the. Roast the spices that are required like shallots, tomatoes and green chilies we see! South Indian sambar recipe | nuggekai sambar | murungakkai sambar soak the tamarind in ¼ cup water for 20-25 and... And jaggery powder for some seconds on a medium flame zesty taste of radish nicely complements and balances flavour! Stirring occasionally buy a good source of fiber and also reduces blood pressure your own sambar powder and a..