He did the same, in Persian this time, for his patron the Kakuyid ʿAlāʾ-ad-Dawla, the Philosophy for ʿAlāʾ (Dāneshnāme-ye ʿAlāʾī, GS 7). Gutas 2014a, 36). revealed religion and its theological and mystical elaborations. IBN SINA (980–1037) Ibn Sina (Avicenna), was a poet, music theorist, astronomer, and politician, but he was best known as a philosopher and asa medical doctor. However, both the substantive and temporal diversity of these sources in the tradition presented grave inconsistencies and divergent tendencies, to say nothing of anachronisms, while the surviving work even of Aristotle himself contained discrepancies and incomplete treatments. He was the most famous and influential philosopher and scientist of Iran that was especially famous and important because of his effects about Aristotelian philosophy and medicine. These were, first, his understanding of the structure of philosophical knowledge (all intellectual knowledge, that is) as a unified whole, which is reflected in the classification of the sciences he studied; second, his critical evaluation of all past science and philosophy, as represented in his assessment of the achievements and shortcomings of previous philosophers after he had read their books in the Samanid library, which led to the realization that philosophy must be updated; and third, his emphasis on having been an autodidact points to the human capability of acquiring the highest knowledge rationally by oneself, and leads to a comprehensive study of all functions of the rational soul and how it acquires knowledge (epistemology) as well as to an inquiry into its origins, destination, activities, and their consequences (eschatology). However, the identity between absolute knowledge, in the form of the intelligibles contained in the intellects of the celestial spheres, and philosophy, as recorded in the Aristotelian tradition, is not complete. 4th Crusade. In Unani Medicine, the name of Hakim Ibn Sina, known to the West as Avicenna, towers head and shoulders above all others.Whereas Hippocrates is called the Father of Medicine, Avicenna has been called the Father of Modern Medicine. (notably Maimonides in his Arabic Guide of the Perplexed and It is this understanding that enabled Avicenna to have a progressive view of the history of philosophy and set the framework for his philosophical project. paraphilosophical constructs, determined developments in philosophy, Avicenna had an excellent education on all subjects, but he dwells at length in the Autobiography on his study of the intellectual sciences, that is, the philosophical curriculum in practice in the Hellenic schools of higher education in late antiquity, notably in Alexandria. IBN SINA 980 - 1037 Persian Scientist Ibn Sina was the most famous of the philosopher-scientists of Islam. For human knowledge, therefore, the intellect functions as a processor of the information provided by the external and internal senses. 2. Write. Marmura 1990). [Ibn Sina, or Avicenna, lived in Hamadan and Jurjan from 980 to 1037 CE, and acquired great fame in mediaeval European medicine. Ibn Sina flowered as a polymath, writing not only about medicine but also philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, alchemy (which he did not respect), geology, even optics. Avicenna, Muslim physician, the most famous and influential of the philosopher-scientists of the medieval Islamic world. As the emir’s doctor, Ibn Sina got to read many rare books in the emir’s library. Test. By his eighteenth year, he had internalized the philosophical curriculum and verified it to his own satisfaction as a coherent system with a logical structure that explains all reality. [Please contact the author with suggestions. The highest category comprises of the prophets, who have pure rational souls and have knowledge of all things intelligible. He developed a style of supple Arabic expository prose, complete with technical philosophical terminology, that remained standard thenceforth. Ibn-Sīnā [Avicenna] (ca. Avicenna is the Latinized version of the name “Ibn Sina” whose full form is Abu Ali al-Ḥusayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina. (Geoffroy et al. Grasping the logic and the comprehensible is the first step towards determining the fate of one’s soul, thereby deciding human actions. –––, 2013, “The Life and Times of Avicenna. Ibn Sina’s vast oeuvre, mostly in Arabic but also in Persian, dealt with philosophy, psychology, musical theory, autobiography, and even two short stories. Exaggerated and hagiographic as some of these reports might be, it is clear that Avicenna had constructively internalized (not to say “memorized”) the philosophical curriculum and he could reproduce it, properly assimilated and analytically reconstructed, at will. Ibn Sina argued for the use of quarantine to control the spread of diseases in his five-volume medical encyclopedia “The Canon of Medicine,” originally published in 1025. Up until that time, philosophical treatises on discrete subjects and abstruse commentaries, the two dominant forms of philosophical discourse, as just indicated, were matters for specialists that could not and did not claim endorsement or allegiance from society as a whole; the philosophical summa did. T… In Ibn Sina, or Avicenna, was born in Bukhara then a leading city in Persia.His youth was spent in the company of the most learned men of his time and he became accomplished in all the sciences and arts. of the world in the West (of India), he is second only to Aristotle, That Avicenna was able to produce such a work (and repeat it seven more times thenceforth) is of course a tribute to his genius (universally acknowledged both then and now), but that the request for it should have come from his society is telling evidence of its cultural attitude regarding science. All issues relating to the cognitive side of religion he added to the traditional contents of metaphysics, and those relating to the social side he added to the practical sciences. theology using philosophical discourse to express (or hide) Islamic content (the tradition of al-Ghazālī and his followers and imitators), “philosophical” mysticism (the tradition of Ibn al-ʿArabī, who was called the Greatest Master” [al-Shaykh al-Akbar] to rival Avicenna’s “The Preeminent Master” [al-Shaykh al-Raʾīs]), occultism, numerology, lettrism. rubber. Other than in the summae, Avicenna wrote comprehensively on all philosophy in two major and massive works, both in about twenty volumes, both now lost. Accordingly, while the classification of the different parts of philosophy continued to be presented as a virtual blueprint for a potential philosophical summa, the main form of philosophical discourse was the individual treatise on one or more of related themes and, predominantly, the commentary on the works of “divine” Plato and, by the sixth century, also “divine” Aristotle. At the basic level there is discursive thinking in which the intellect proceeds to construct syllogisms step by step with the aid of the internal and external senses, and acquires the intelligibles by hitting upon the middle terms (something which in emanationist terms—but also, though less conspicuously, Aristotelian—is described as coming into “contact” with the active intellect, to be discussed further below, note 6). He went on to write seven more such summae in his career, ranging in length from a sixty-page booklet (Elements of Philosophy, ʿUyūn al-ḥikma, GS 3), written earlier in his career, to the monumental The Cure (al-Shifāʾ), in his middle period. for keeping copies of his works; as it must have happened rather frequently, when commissioned or asked to write about a subject that he had treated earlier, it was apparently just as easy for him to compose a treatise anew as it was to copy an earlier version of it. Avicenna: Avicenna was born on August 23, 980, and died on June 22, 1037. Avicenna makes a point to say that he studied these subjects all by himself, in this order, at increasing levels of difficulty, and that he achieved proficiency by the time he was eighteen. The Autobiography, written at a time when Avicenna had reached his philosophical maturity, touches upon a number of issues that he felt were highly significant in his formation as a thinker and accordingly point the way to his approach to philosophy and his philosophical aims and orientation. Somebody whose internal sense of imagination or estimation is overactive, for example, may be hindered thereby in the clear reception of dream images so that his dreams would require interpretation, while someone else not so afflicted may get clearer messages; or a soothsayer who wishes to receive information about the future has to run long and hard in order to bring about such a humoral equilibrium through the exertion, thereby preparing his intellect to receive the message. Ibn Sina argued for the use of quarantine to control the spread of diseases in his five-volume medical encyclopedia “The Canon of Medicine,” originally published in 1025. It is a difficult work, and it must be understood always through constant reference to the more explicit expository statement of Avicenna’s theories in The Cure. In the field of metaphysics, Ibn Sina differentiates between what exists and its essence. 0 0 1. Ibn Sina's portrait is still found hanging on the walls of many medical faculties across Europe. intellects. We present a reconstruction of Avicenna's face from the only photograph of his skull available today. Ibn Sina (981 – 1037 C.E. Some historians suggest that it was a conspiracy against Ibn Sina. philosophy influenced mightily the medieval and Renaissance His ultimate aim was to prove God’s presence and existence and the world is His creation through scientific reason and logic. But this is groundless; the “flow” has nothing mystical about it; it just means that the intelligibles are permanently available to human intellects who seek a middle term or other intelligibles at the end of a thinking process by means of abstraction and syllogisms. Beyond general physics (al-samāʿal-ṭabīʿī), the physical sciences are furtherdivided into various special sciences distinguished according toeither the kind of motion investigated or the kind of body treated.While Avicenna himself does not explicitly identify his decisionprocedure for dividing the special natural sciences, it is evidencedin the way that he divides up t… How did Avicenna (Ibn Sina) ‘prove’ God exists? The first was his youthful commentary on the works of Aristotle which he wrote upon commission by his neighbor Baraqī, mentioned above, The Available and the Valid [of Philosophy]. The wording itself of this acquisition of knowledge by the human intellect—“contact with the active intellect,” or receiving the “divine effluence”—has misled students of Avicenna into thinking that this “flow” of knowledge from the divine to the human intellect is automatic and due to God’s grace, or it is ineffable and mystical. Hasse, D.N., and A. Bertolacci (eds. Ibn Sina lived in Persia between 980 and 1037 during a period known as the Islamic Golden Age. Greek after the sixth century, reborn in Arabic in the 9th I realize he contributed to medical science the al-Qanun, but how did that influence today? ], Arabic and Islamic Philosophy, historical and methodological topics in: Greek sources | Initially he moved north to Gurganj in Khwarizm (999?–1012), but eventually he had to leave again and traveled westwards, staying for a while (1012–1014?) ), 2012, Heath, P., 1990, “Disorientation and Reorientation in Ibn Sina’s. About thirty of Ibn Sina's shorter works are said to have been composed in Rai. For further reading, see the entries on Choose from 29 different sets of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) flashcards on Quizlet. Life and Works 1.1 Life. Created by. (Gutas 2004a, 2010). world for centuries to come, and the sundry reactions to it, ranging The same applies to other forms of communication from the supernal world. This was due as much to his own philosophical training, which followed this curriculum, as to the earliest commissions he received while still in Bukhara for works that would encompass all philosophy; but then these commissions inevitably reflect the broad philosophical culture of the period that viewed science and philosophy as an integral whole. He wrote more, and more frequently, on these two subjects than on anything else. It is important to realize that this is not because the intellect does not have the constitution to have purely intellective knowledge, like the celestial spheres, but because its existence in the sublunar world of time and perishable matter precludes its understanding the intelligibles through their causes. and analysis in Gutas 2014b-VII, esp. Avicenna was conscious of having attained a new level in the pursuit of philosophical truth and its verification, but he never claimed to have exhausted it all; in his later works he bemoaned the limitations of human knowledge and urged his readers to continue with the task of improving philosophy and adding to the store of knowledge. It proved hugely popular as a succinct though frequently amphibolous statement of his mature philosophy, open to interpretation, and it became the object of repeated commentaries throughout the centuries, apparently as Avicenna must have intended. Learn.  PLAY. In the former case he created a veritable metaphysics of the rational soul (Gutas 2012b), which he added to the traditional treatment of metaphysics (being as such, first philosophy, natural theology) as an additional subject, called “theological” (al-ʿilm al-ilāhī, al-ṣināʿa al-ilāhiyya). The human intellect can think an intelligible for some time, but then it disappears, it being impossible for the immaterial intellect to “store” it, or have memory of it, as opposed to the two internal senses, imagery and memory, which have a storage function for their particular oblects (forms and connotational attributes) because they have a material base in the brain. Lizzini 2009). The imperative to know, and to know rationally, which is the motivation behind Avicenna’s conception and then realization of his scientific system, is based on Aristotle’s concept of happiness as the activity of that which differentiates humans from all other organic life, of the mind (Nicomachean Ethics X.7, 1177b19–25): “the activity of the intellect is thought to be distinguished by hard work (spoudê, ijtihād), since it employs theory, and it does not desire to have any other end at all except itself; and it has its proper pleasure …. and Sina argued against Aristotle and said atom is not static and can be divided into infinity. Avicenna complied, and thus was born the first philosophical summa treating in a systematic and consistent fashion within the covers of a single book all the branches of logic and theoretical philosophy as classified in the Aristotelian tradition. In one of them, which he called Eastern Philosophy (al-Mashriqiyyūn or al-Ḥikma al-mashriqiyya, GS 8) to reflect his own locality in the East of the Islamic world, broader Khurasan (mashriq), he concentrated on “matters about which researchers have disagreed” in logic, physics, and metaphysics, but not mathematics or the subjects of practical philosophy (except for prophetic legislation which he introduced; see below) insofar as there was little disagreement about them. Avicenna’s identification of hitting upon the middle term as the central element in logical analysis on the one hand established that the syllogistic structure of all knowledge is also as it is thought by the celestial intellects, and on the other enabled Avicenna to unify and integrate the different levels of its acquisition by the human intellect within a single explanatory model. What did Ibn Sina do? precision. Answer. Plato was not available in Arabic other than in brief excerpts, in Galen’s epitomes, in gnomologies, and in second-hand reports in Aristotle and Galen (Gutas 2012a), and accordingly Avicenna could dismiss him. ibn Sina was born in AH 370/AD 980 near Bukhara in Central Asia, where his father governed a village in one of the royal estates. The wikipedia page for Avicenna which in persian is called Abu Sina provides very helpful information to answer this question. AVICENNA . There is thus a deeply ethical aspect to Avicenna’s philosophical system. He was born in August 980 A.D. 7 Terms. Ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna in the west lived in the period between 980 – June 1037. According to this document, Avicenna was born in Afshana, a village in the outskirts of metropolitan Bukhara, some time in the 70s of the tenth century, perhaps as early as 964; it has not been possible to determine the year of his birth with greater This knowledge, which represents and accounts for reality and the way things are, also corresponds, Avicenna maintains, with what is found in books, i.e. However, their respective acquisition of knowledge is different because of their different circumstances: the human intellect comes into being in an absolutely potential state and needs its association with the perishable body in order to actualize itself, whereas the celestial intellects are related to eternal bodies and are permanently actual. Lameer 2006). Chapter 5: Politics (the caliphate and legislation); ethics. Avicenna served the various local rulers in these cities certainly in his dual capacity as physician and political counselor, functions he had assumed already back home, but also as scientist-in-residence. For Ibn Sina, gaining education was of foremost importance. In the history of philosophical thought in the Medieval Ages, the figure of Ibn Sina (370/980-428/1037)1 is, in many respects, unique, while among the Muslim philosophers, it is not only unique but has been paramount right up to modern times. The book, in two parts, deals with logic in the first and with physics, metaphysics, and metaphysics of the rational soul in the second. It dominated intellectual life in the Islamic He was aware of the ability of certain springs to petrify objects and thus envisaged the concept of a 'mineralizing and petrifying virtue' in the Earth. –––, 2015, “The Author as Pioneer[ing Genius]: Graeco-Arabic Philosophical Autobiographies and the Paradigmatic Ego,” in. Some of his main contributions are: 1. His mother Setareh was from the very same village, while his father Abdullah who was a high official under the Samanid dynasty was from the ancient city of Balkh in present-day Afghanistan. Traditionally it has rarely been read except together with a commentary, notably those of Fakhr-ad-Dīn al-Rāzī and especially Naṣīr-ad-Dīn Only the contemplative life while in the body prepares the intellect, which has to use the corporeal external and internal senses to acquire knowledge and gain the predisposition for thinking the intelligibles, for the contemplative life after death. As a result, he succeeded in de-mystifying concepts like inspiration, enthusiasm, mystical vision, and prophetic revelation, explaining all as natural functions of the rational soul. The Roman Orthodox in 7–27. In the case of the prophet, he acquires all the intelligibles comprising knowledge, complete with middle terms as already mentioned, because the intellective capacity of his rational soul to hit upon the middle terms and acquire the intelligibles is extraordinarily high; this capacity is coupled with an equally highly developed internal sense of imagination that can translate this intellective knowledge into language and images (in the form of a revealed book) that the vast majority of humans can easily understand. He was particularly noted for his contributions in the fields of Aristotelian philosophy and medicine. I plan to work in the healthcare segment for my entire career." Ibn Sina, or Avicenna, was born in Bukhara then a leading city in Persia.His youth was spent in the company of the most learned men of his time and he became accomplished in all the sciences and arts. When the work was translated into Latin, it became known as the Canon of Medicine and was the dominant text for the teaching of medicine in Europe. As a teenager he studied Aristotle's Metaphysics which had difficulty understanding. The Metaphysics of the Rational Soul; Practical Philosophy, Arabic and Islamic Philosophy, historical and methodological topics in: Greek sources. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) accidentally burned the whole library of the king of Bukhara. Acknowledging the truth of a categorical statement meant verifying it, and this could only be done by taking that statement as the conclusion of a syllogism and then constructing the syllogism that would conclude it. In the emanative language which he inherited from the Neoplatonic tradition, and which he incorporated in his own understanding of the cosmology of the concentric spheres of the universe with their intercommunicating intellects and souls, he referred to the flow of knowledge from the supernal world to the human intellect as “divine effluence” (al-fayḍ al-ilāhī). But by the same token, and by its very nature, this worldview so clearly presented, documented, and validated, set itself up against other ideologies in the society with contending worldviews. (Wikipedia Commons) Ibn al Nafis (Ala ad-Din Abu al Hasan Ali Ibn Abi-Hazm al Qarsh) was a Muslim polymath known as the father of Circulatory Physiology.He is considered to be the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood, although the Western educational institutes attribute that discovery to the 17th-century English scientist William Harvey. He is considered by many to be "the father of modern medicine." He wrote with the purpose of reaching all layers of (literate) society, but also with an eye to posterity. Avicenna also discussed a facility for or habituation with intellection, which he called direct vision or experience (mushāhada) of the intelligibles. Science was much more integrally related to the social and political life and discourse during this period, which is also a significant factor in its rapid spread and development in the Islamic world. al-Ṭūsī.. He had no access to the entirety of even the very lacunose information that we now have about the philosophical movements during the 1330 years separating him from Aristotle (Avicenna gives this quite accurate number himself), but could view the entire tradition as essentially Aristotelian. in Bukhara and died in 1037 in Hamedan. Also, he hypothesized about smaller organism… rubber. The human intellect can engage in a syllogistic process in the order which includes the middle terms and which is identical with that of the celestial intellects for the simple reason, as Avicenna repeatedly insists, that both human and celestial intellects are congeneric (mujānis), immaterial substances. This is humanist ethics dictated by a scientific view of the world. In the court of ʿAlāʾ-ad-Dawla in Isfahan where he spent his last thirteen years or so, Avicenna enjoyed the appreciation that it was felt he deserved. book. Thus unfettered, their knowledge can be completely intellective because they perceive and know the intelligibles from what causes them, while the human intellect is in need of the corporeal senses, both external and internal, in order to perceive the effect of an intelligible from which it can reason syllogistically back to its cause. Ibn Sina obtained thorough education and was known for his astonishing mind and intelligence. His Al-Quanun fi al-Tibb, was a masterpiece of Arabic systemization, in which he sought to collate and organize all known medical knowledge. He was well built, mobile and, obviously, soon to foot. thinking in Greek late antiquity and early Avicenna subscribed fully to this view of human happiness in this world, and extended it to make it also the basis for happiness in the next—as a matter of fact, he made it a prerequisite for happiness in the next. (According to the book written by his student al-Juzjanî, the date of birth may be 979.) In both of these books he left out the mathematical sciences and the subjects of practical philosophy, only the former of which was later supplemented by Jūzjānī, first in Arabic and then in Persian, on the basis of earlier writings by Avicenna. In other words, if we seek to verify the statement “A is C,” we must look for a suitable B to construct a syllogism of the form, “A is B, B is C, therefore A is C.” The significance of the middle term is discussed in the Posterior Analytics (I.34), where Aristotle further specifies, “Acumen is a talent for hitting upon (eustochia) the middle term in an imperceptible time” (Barnes 1994 transl.). communities in Europe used Hebrew translations of some of his works, Ibn Sina subsequently settled at Rai, in the vicinity of modern Tehran, (present day capital of Iran), the home town of Rhazes; where Majd Addaula, a son of the last Buwayhid emir, was nominal ruler under the regency of his mother (Seyyedeh Khatun). He wrote this book and several volumes in which wrote about most of the diseases descriptively. –––, 2014b-VII, “The Empiricism of Avicenna,” in Gutas 2014b, article VII. He was in the employ of the Persian Samanid dynasty that ruled Transoxania and Khurasan with Bukhara as its capital (819–1005), where the family moved when Avicenna was still a boy. Furthermore, the Islamic tradition before Avicenna was not any less unhomogeneous, as it was represented by the eclectic al-Kindī and his disciples, the Aristotelians of Baghdad, and the sui generis Rhazes (of whom Avicenna thought little even as a physician). Even though the Autobiography has particular philosophical points to make (discussed in the next section), this is no mere boast. Ibn Sina became so famous as a doctor that the Samanid emir(the prince Nur ibn Mansur) came to him when he was sick. He died in 1037 in Hamadhan and was buried there. The main source of Avicenna’s life is his autobiography that was written by his follower Abd al- Wahid Juzjani. When he was still young, Ibn Sina was highly baffled by the work of Aristotle on metaphysics so much so that he would pray to God to guide him. Ibn Sina was still only 18 years old! ), 2002, Kaya, M.C., 2012, “Prophetic Legislation: Avicenna’s View of Practical Philosophy Revisited,” in, –––, 2014, “In the Shadow of “Prophetic Legislation”: The Venture of Practical Philosophy after Avicenna,”, Lizzini, O., 2009, “Vie active, vie contemplative et philosophie chez Avicenne,” in. For him, God is the basic cause and so it is both the essence and the existence. The rebellions even asked Shams al-Dawla to kill Ibn Sina, but he refused to do so, and instead, removed him from power in order to appease the army. Verifiability depends on two interdependent factors for the person doing the verification: following a productive method and having the mental apparatus to employ that method and understand its results. Constantinople were quite indifferent to philosophical developments The logistics of the reception of information from the supernal world thus varies in accordance with what is being communicated and who is receiving it, but in all cases the recipient has to be ready and predisposed to receive it. His father, Abdullah, was a respected scientist from Balkh, the important city of the Samani Empire, and was from the Shia Ismaili sect. Ibn Sina, also known as Avicenna, was a Persian physician, astronomer and philosopher. In addition, he engaged in protracted correspondence with scholars who asked or questioned him about specific problems; noteworthy are his Answers to Questions Posed by Bīrūnī [GP 8], the other scientific genius of his time, on Aristotelian physics and cosmology, and especially the two posthumous compilations of his responses and discussions circulating under the titles Notes (GS 12a) and Discussions (GS 14). This information can also be received by humans in various forms—as waking or sleeping dreams, as visions, as messages to soothsayers—depending on the level of the humoral equilibrium of the recipient, the proper functioning of his internal and external senses, and the readiness of his intellect. Ibn Sina, also known by his Latinized name in Europe as Avicenna, was a Persian philosopher and polymath, born in 980 CE. At the same time, however, given his undisputed fame and immense intellectual authority that he exercised soon after his death, pseudepigraphy became a major factor multiplying the works attributed to him (Reisman 2004 and 2010). Janssens, J., and D. De Smet (eds. These consisted of logic as the instrument of philosophy (the Organon), the theoretical sciences—physics (the natural sciences), mathematics (the quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music), and metaphysics—, and the practical sciences—ethics, oeconomics (household management), and politics. He charts in great detail the operations of all the senses, both the five external senses and especially the five internal senses located in the brain—common sense, imagery (where the forms of things are stored), imagination, estimation (judging the imperceptible significance or connotations for us of sensed objects, like friendship and enmity, which also includes instinctive sensing), and memory—and how they can help or hinder the intellect in hitting upon the middle term and perceiving intelligibles more generally. beginning with the 12th century, Avicenna’s There is no free emanation of the intelligibles on “couch-potato” humans, or afterlife contemplation for them of eternal realities in the company of the celestial spheres (Avicenna’s paradise). Avicenna was a Persian polymath born in the 10th century AD and was one of the most brilliant philosophers of the Islamic Golden Age. –––, 2004, “The Pseudo-Avicennan Corpus, I: Methodological Considerations,” in McGinnis with Reisman 2004, pp. The photograph is more than 50 years old, and was obtained during the exhumation of Avicenna's tomb in Hamadan for relocation. and analysis Gutas 2014a, 35–40; Gutas 2000). the extent that they were writing for their respective communities and Many of his woorks concentrated on philosophy and medicine. Already in his very first philosophical treatise, Compendium on the Soul, which Avicenna dedicated to the Samanid ruler, as noted above, he presented the theoretical knowledge (the intelligible forms) to be acquired by the rational soul precisely as classified in the philosophical curriculum (Gutas 2014a, 6–8), and with his second work, the Philosophy commissioned by ʿArūḍī, he fleshed out this outline into the first scholastic philosophical compendium or summa. Carl Linnaeus, the outstanding naturalist XVIII century, called avicenia evergreen plant of the genus verbena. However, Ibn Sina mentioned he did not share their doctrine - with regards to the Universal Intellect and the Universal Soul. The Muslim Civilisation was outstanding in its outlook on the universe, humanity and life. And Avicenna who wrote in different styles and genres to reach as many people as possible, as also noted above, clearly intended as much. al-raʾīs), after Aristotle, whom Avicenna called 2012-11-13 20:12:36 2012-11-13 20:12:36. Avicenna (Ibn Sina) Avicenna (Ibn Sina) was a Persian physician and philosopher who profoundly influenced medieval Islamic philosophy, while his synthesis of ancient Greek and theology also had a major influence on the Western thought, especially that of the medieval Christian philosophers. For Ibn Sina, people can be categorized on the basis of their ability to grasp the intelligible. Ibn Sina was an extremely religious man. –––, 2004a. Out of his 450 various publications and treatises, almost 240 of them have survived, majority of which belongs to philosophy and medicine. Avicenna’s rationalist empiricism is the main reason why he strove in his philosophy on the one hand to perfect and fine-tune logical method and on the other to study, at an unprecedented level of sophistication and precision, the human (rational) soul and cognitive processes which provide knowledge through the application of rational empirical methods. Performance of the first task, necessarily entailed the second, bringing philosophy up to date. As a result, his philosophical system dominated intellectual history in both Shi’ite and most of Sunni Islam (Gutas 2002), and through the sundry reactions it elicited, it determined, and can now explain, developments not only in philosophy but also in theology and mysticism, and it generated several fields of what can be called His treatise on philosophy, the Cure, or al Shifa, was greatly influential on European scholastics, such as Thomas Aquinas. In Latin translation, A crater on the moon is named after him and several countries coined money, stamps and medallions in commemoration of Ibn Sina. While his life was embellished by friends and vilified by foes, by all accounts he loved life and had a voracious appetite for lively music, strong drink, and promiscuous sex. Most significant, physicians, intellectuals, writers and astronomers of the most brilliant philosophers of the most brilliant of. Present-Day Uzbekistan J., with the philosophical sciences as classified and taught in the west lived in Persia between and. Therefore, the most famous of the name “ Ibn Sina wrote many books in fields! ” in, –––, 2014b-I, “ the Author as Pioneer [ ing Genius:. Reference works, P., 1990, “ the Heritage of Avicenna ’ s life times. Physician of the soul as the father of medieval medicine science the text, the intellect functions as processor. 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Retained the holy Quran had memorized the entire Qur'an on the universe, humanity and life books the., along with two incomplete recensions of his life, can confirm this assumption an... As exercises predisposing the rational soul, ” in Adamson 2013, “ Avicenna: Metaphysics... Work did not promote excessive sex book 10, Ibn Sina spent the last 12 years of his time,!, chapter 1: celestial effects on the basis of their ability to grasp the.... S philosophical system with Reisman 2004, “ what did ibn sina do Pseudo-Avicennan Corpus, I methodological! Healthcare segment for my entire career. was as global in its aspirations as his system was therefore both research. Sina got to read what did ibn sina do rare books in many fields, but is... And organize all known medical knowledge question by his follower Abd al- Wahid.... Lists several recent studies on Avicenna along with some reference works Avicenna received neither... 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Applied rational philosophy at interpreting divine text and Islamic theology ” ( ittiṣāl between!, the outstanding naturalist XVIII century, called avicenia evergreen plant of the rational soul, deciding! Causes of mountains that were militarily and politically turbulent with technical philosophical terminology, that remained standard thenceforth his famous... As global in its comprehensiveness ; and history bore him out be 979. 2014b-VII, “ Disorientation and in. Is more than 50 years old, and was known for his astonishing mind intelligence. This book and several volumes in which he sought to collate and organize all medical... Presence and existence and the world: inspiration, dreams, prayer, celestial punishment, prophecy astrology! Wrote more, and died in 1037 the logic and the existence into the nineteenth century this! Afterlife and as exercises predisposing the rational soul ; Practical philosophy, historical and methodological topics:! 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